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Second Report on the findings of the People’s Inquiry Commission on the activities of the War Criminals and the Collaborators
July 13, 2008, 2:50 am
Filed under: SubContinent

 Second Report on the findings of the People’s Inquiry Commission on the activities of the War Criminals and the Collaborators
(Summary of the investigation published on 26 March 1995)

Introduction
‘National Co-ordinating Committee for Realisation of Bangladesh Liberation War Ideals and Trial of Bangladesh War Criminals of 1971’ announced its programme to unveil the misdeeds of the war criminals of 1971 at a rally on March 26, 1993 while observing its first anniversary of the public trial of prime accused war criminal Golam Azam.

A national committee, hereby called, the ‘National People’s Inquiry Commission’, was constituted to investigate into the activities of the leading war criminals and to determine the logic for their trail.

Poet, women leader and human rights activist Begum Sufia Kamal was made the chairperson of the committee while writer Shawkat Osman, educationist Khan Sarwar Murshid, Justice Debesh Bhattacharya, Justice KM Sobhan, poet Shamsur Rahman, Professor Anupam Sen, Professor M A Khaleq, former lawmaker Advocate Salahuddin Yusuf, Air Vice Marshal (retd.) Sadruddin Ahmed and Barrister Shafiq Ahmed were made member of the committee.

The country bust into protest when Gulam Azam, the prime collaborator of the 1971 Pakistani occupation forces and war criminal, was made Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh on 29 January 1991. The fanatic party violated the country’s constitution and undermined once again the spirit of the liberation war by announcing a Pakistani citizen, Azam, the Ameer of its party. As the government was unheeded about the matter, country’s renowned personalities have came together and formed a committee to resist the collaborators and uphold the spirit of the liberation war i.e. secular democracy. Jahanara Imam was made chief of the organisation.

Based on the investigation report, Golam was found guilty on ten specific account that is eligible for capital punishment by a public -trial at Sarwardi Uddyan on March 26, 1992. Then, the movement against the fundamentalism geared up with an intensified demand of banning on the fascist fundamentalist politics of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh and other radicals. The people’s Inquiry Commission was formed in March 1993 in this direction.

The commission on the first phase decided to investigate allegations of criminal activities of eight well known war criminals and come up with major disclosure on March 26, 1994 at a public rally. On the second phase the commission decided to continue investigation against eight more notorious persons 1) S A M Solaiman, 2) Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury, 3) Maolana Abdus Sobhan, 4) Maolana AKM Yusuf, 5) Mohammad Aen-ud-din, 6) Ali Ahsan Mohammad Mujahid, 7) ABM Khaleque Majumder and 8) Dr. Syed Sajjad Hossain.

The Commission gave responsibility to writer-journalist Shahriar Kabir for documentation of newspaper reportings, historical books and also to conduct a physical investigation. It asked Kabir to report back to the commission. A group of young journalists including Julfiker Ali Manik, Emon Sikder, Mehedi Hasan, Provash Amin, Barrister Sarah Hossain, Javed Hasan Mahmud, Asaduzzaman, Abu Junaed Seneka, Faezuddin Ahmed, Umme Habiba Sumi, Faiz Ahmed Setu and Mohammd Reza extended their support to the investigation process. On march 23, 1995 the commission finally approved the draft report and handed to the National Co-ordinating Committee to make it public.

The Commission abandoned field level investigation into allegation against Dr. Syed Sajjad Hossain as he died during the investigation process. Part of his anti-Bangladesh activities during the liberation, which was published in the newspaper during the 1971 and ’72 and some government documents, were attached with the report. It was learnt through the investigation that the rest seven were still hatching various conspiracies against the country and were creating panic situation in their respective areas. As a result many people harassed in their hands during the war, have requested not to disclose their names fearing that their lives could be endangered.

The people’s Inquiry Commission observed that the major information could not be recovered due to non-cooperation by different government agencies and many evidences were destroyed. The minority Hindu community, the prime target of the Pakistani occupation forces and their collaborators, was still panic-stricken for socio-political adversities. As many of the Hindus left the country during this period, one of the commission had no other option but to testify their neighbours. Therefore, this time also the nature and extent of crimes committed by the killers and collaborators were partially disclosed like the previous report. The extent of crimes is more than that of the allegations.
The accused and the Evidance

A S M Solaiman
A S M SOLAIMAN, son of Md. Jonab Ali, Village – Boydder Bazar, Post Office – Boidder Bazar, Thana – Soanargaon, Dist – Narayanganj. At present : 20/1, Pallabi, Thana – Pallabi, District – Dhaka. He is the president of Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Party now.

Solaiman as the minister of Malek cabinet of with the portfolio of Labour, Social welfare and Family Planning and as chief of the district coordination committee presided over a meeting with DC office, police officers and other communities on December 8, 1971. The meeting expressed firm determination to maintain law and order and took some decision.

From the very beginning of the war, Solaiman was very active. In a statement on April 8, 1971 he called upon the then armed forces for ‘bringing back normalcy in the country by fighting the anti-social and anti-state elements’. On May 7, he also called upon the members of the Peace
Committee at a meeting to ‘check all common people and anti-state elements’ in a bid to catch the freedom fighters. On November 15, 1971, he told newsmen in Karachi, “Razarkers were doing praise-worthy and they should be called the national heroes.” (Genocide ’71 : An Account of the Killers and Collaborators, Edited by Dr. Ahmad Sharif, Qazi Nur-uz-Zaman, Dr. Serajul Islam Chowdhury & Shahriar Kabir, published by Muktijuddha Chetona Bikash Kendra, Dhaka, February 1987)

Inhabitants in Sonargaon brought allegation against Soliman of direct or indirect involvement in killing, looting, torching, raping and various forms of atrocities. President of Aminpur Union Awami League and an elected Union Parishad Member, Mohammad Tayebur Rahman, narrated formation of Razaker Bahini by ASM Solaiman in 11 unions of Sonargaon thana.

Tayebur informed Solaiman had appointed every chairman of the then Union Parisads as chairman of the ‘Peace Committee’. Among them (1) Raja Moulavi of Aminpur (2) Shamsul Haq Khan of Perojpur (3) Alauddin of Boiddyer Bazar (4) Gafur Sarker of Sammandi (5) Abdul Mannaf Bhuiyan of Jampur UP (6) Hossain Khan of Kanchpur (7) Bakhar Ali of Sathipur (8) Nasiruddin of Noaga (9) Abdur Rob Milkey of Barodi (10) Rafiqul Islam of Mograpara and (11) M A Jaher of Shomvupura Union Pariashad were appointed as chairmen of the Peace Committee. Soanrgaon Peace Committee chairman ASM Solaiman led them as their leader. M A Zaher was also appointed the General Secretary and Raja Moulavi as Organising Secretary of Sonargaon unit of Peace Committee (PC). Alauddin and Mohiuddin Mollah, a brother of Solaiman, acted in absence of Solaiman.

Tayebur Rahman also informed that Jamir Ali Kerani, an associate of Solaiman, handed over a Hindu girl named Bibha Rani to the Pakistani occupation forces in mid-May .The military-men released her in a critical condition after raping overnight. Bibha is now in India. Ali also led an attack on the home of one Narendra Patel in Boiddyer Bazar. Tayebur at that time risking his life reached at the scene and rescued five girl from the scene and taken to a nearby village for their safety, he said.

Tayebur said that the Soliaman-gang had attacked on a freedom fighters’ meeting on May 24 at Boiddyer Bazar. Tayebur was caught by the PC members twice and was released on request from a non-bengali postmaster at the area. The gang, he said, set on fire homes, more than hundred in Sammanadi, ten in Companiganj, five in Shatipur and the entire homes of Pirojpur village. Jamir and Allauddin executed the plan of Solaiman from women supply to torching.

Moshammat Azimon Nahar of Haria Gopindi village told the commission that her husband Siddiq Mia was killed on December 14 near Adamjee area. She alleged Soliamn’s gang and local razakars were involved in her husband’s killing.. She demanded trial of her husband’s killing.
An Awami League worker, Sumon, of Hatkopa village when appeared to the commission said, the Pakistani forces attacked his home with the help of Tekka Shamsu, a trust-worthy associate of ASM Solaiman, in a bid to catch the young women of his home. He said the women saved them hiding in a nearby jute plantation.

Freedom fighter Nurul Islam of Basan Daradi village said, geographically Sonargaon was ab important area and all goods were being transported through the Sonargaon river port. At the very beginning of the war Solaiman and his associates, especially the Razaker Bahini, used to loot the goods like rice, sugar, flour, oil, fertiliser, tea etc. from various vehicles. Traders lodged a number of complaints at freedom fighter’s camp in Sammanadi village, according to Islam.

He said being informed by the Razakars, Pakistani forces unleashed attack on the training camp of the freedom fighters at that village. During the attack the Razakars on their way took away two young girls from the village. But none of the girls returned. He said many such incidents were suppressed social humiliation apprehending.

According to eyewitnesses account, Razakars set their eyes on the Hindu dominated Shahapur, Baninathpur, Joyrampur, Vattapur, Barirghubhanga, Baghmucha, Panamnagar, Boiddyer Bazar, Satbhayapara, Ramganj and Panchabati for the Hindu girls. As per the directions from Solaiman, Jamir Kerani and Shamsu led the Razakers to supply women to the Pakistani camp at Boiddyer Bazar.
Apart from this, the commission learnt that a number of incidents of firing, looting and killing took place in the area perpetrated by the Razakars led by Solaiman and his associats.
Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury
SALAHUDDIN KADER CHOWDHURY, son of late Fazlul Kader Chowdhury, Village-Gahira, Thana -Rawzan, District-Chittagong . He was a minister in the autocratic General Ershad’s cabinet. He is now leader of the National Democratic Party.

Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury opposed Bangladesh’s independence and took a number of measures against the freedom fighters during the Liberation War of 1971. He used to provide all out support to the Pakistani occupation forces. His area was grater Chittagong district. He along with his father Fazlul Kader Chowdhury, brother Giasuddin Kader Chowdhury organised a number of collaborators against the liberation war. They had been out and out anti-Bangladeshi elements and perpetrated whatever they wanted to do in the name of opposing the freedom struggle.

The vernacular daily news paper ‘Dainik Bangla’ published a report on 8 January 1972 featuring the activities of Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury and his family. The paper reported “Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury and his father Fazlul Kader Chowdhury brought a good number of young boys at Good Hill’s residence in Chittagong and unleashed repression on them. Salahuddin in association with Pakistan army killed one Faruk, a then student leader, at his residence on July 17, 1971. A platoon of Pakistan army was deployed in front of Salahuddin’s residence from the beginning up to the end of the war. The common people caught him and his father when they were trying to flee with a mound of gold on

December 18, 1971, two days after the Pakistan army surrendered to the joint forces.”
Shakhawat Hossain Majnu, a prolific author, in his book “Torture Cells and Killing Grounds in Chittagong during the Liberation War” gave a vivid description of the torture cells. He writes about the Good Hill’s residence of Salahuddin, “The torture centre was being led by extremists of the Muslim League. The home belongs to Fazlul Kader Chowdhury. He was not involved with the crimes at the early stage of the war. But, from May inspired by the Muslim League extremists, he started assisting the Pakistani forces. At one stage his Good Hills residence become a torture centre of the pro-liberation forces. It is heard that his son Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury was directly involved with the torture. Pro-liberation elements were being caught from different city points and beaten up mercilessly after being tied. Omar Faruk, a well known freedom fighter was killed at this home. Members of the Al-Badr forces had directly been given support to the torture.”

In a book tilled ‘Bangalir Muktijudhher Itibritto’, written by Mahbubul Alam described the torture. On page 69 of the book, the author writes, “Nizamuddin got free from Jail on November 18, 1971. He says … I was arrested on July 5. I was taken to Fazlul Kader. I was tied back-folded and beaten up for continuous five hours by Fazlul Kader’s son Salahuddin, associate Khoka, Khalil and Yousuf. I got unconscious. I was sent to the stadium on July 6. Until then I was given neither food nor water. Once I wanted water, they said that you became a Hindu, we will not give you water even. On July 13, I was taken to the jail. At this time I was being beaten hanged from upside down. When I was dropped once in a day was being provided with two pieces of bread and water, but they didn’t feel offended to kick my back. Then I started to pray regular to avoid torture. But the soldiers did not spare me. They kicked me on my back saying, fuck you, you became a hindu,
what pray you need to offer.”

In the same book, the writer told about an incident of April 13 an attack on Kundeshawri Bhaban. “Principal Notun Chandra Singha was murdered in the Kundershawri Bhaban on April 13. From the morning, the military started firing from Gahira High School. They set up mortars on the roof of the school and was continuing firing toward Kundeshwari Bhaban. The principal had sent all other members of his family to some safe place but he remained with the Kundeshawri temple.

Presuming that the military might come, the principal placed some chairs and tables on the courtyard to welcome the soldiers. Two jeeps, followed by four tanks, had droved down at Kundeshwari Bhaban. Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury was one of them accompanying the soldiers. The principal made the soldiers understand that what he had done for the people of that area and what his plan was for the future. The military went back. But Salahuddin again brought them back saying that this Malaun (infidel) should be killed as per his father’s order. On that day seventy years old Principal Notun Chandra Shingha set an example of strong courage. He stood before the statue of god without any fear. They shot three gunfire, the principal laid down in front of the temple and died praying. Both the Muslims and Hindus got shocked with the killing, but Salahuddin prevented the Muslims not to deplore the death of Malaun (Hindu). Then Salahuddin gang killed two more people,
including one college student Dayal Hari Biswash in Gahira.” (page 254-255)

Local Awami League leader Abdullah Al Harun filed an election case against Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury on April 25, 1991, Kader was the prime accused of among the seven. The petition narrated the wrongdoings of Salahuddin during the war of liberation and said, “the top accused does not bother the law and he believes in terrorism and unleashing attacks and terrorise the locality. He has neither honour to the election code of conduct nor he has regard for the people’s vote. .. the petitioner said the aforesaid person was accused charged with collaborator act of 1972. He was accused in a case (No. 13.4.72) under the act. He was also charged in Notun Chandra Singha murder case 41 (1) 72 and 43 (1) 72. Immediately before the emergence of Bangladesh, this criminal had fled the country, and later he managed to take a seat in the Ershad’s cabinet”, said the petitioner.

On depositions from witnesses, investigators charge-sheeted all the accused of Notun Chandra Singha murder case filed in 1972 (FIR NO. U/S/302/120( 13)/298 BPC). The case started on 29 January 1972. Of the accused Salahuddin’s father and five others were in jail and the five rest were absconding.

Sheikh Muhammad Jahangir, a son of a martyr freedom fighter, told the Commission that Salahuddin Kader in association with the Pakistani army killed his father Sheikh Muzaffar Ahmed and brother Sheikh Alamgir on April 17, 1971. They had taken his father and brother near Hathazari military camp and killed there. After the independence, Jahangir also filed a case against Salahuddin and his gang.
Chittagong Jatiya party leader Harun-or-Rashid was the liaison officer the liberation war of 1971. He said that, he had formed a publicity cell in favour of the freedom fighters to collect information about the anti-liberation forces. He made a report on Salahuddin’s activities including killing and looting, and handed over to Sector Commander Maj. Rafiqul Islam.

Harun came to know that Salahuddin Kader Chowdhury, his father Fazlul Kader Chowdhury and other members of their gang had tortured on uncountable number of freedom-loving citizens and killed them at the Good Hills residence. They also supplied innocent Bengali women to the Pakistan Army for their gratification. He said Salahuddin fled the country immediately before the country gained independence. He was shot at by the freedom fighters while running away.

Even after 24 years of the liberation war, Salahuddin still killing innocent people and terrorising entire Raujan area in Chittagong. Agency reports will qualify those allegations. Still, the NDA leader is accused in three criminal cases filed in Roujan police station.
Moulana Abdus Sobhan
MOULANA ABDUS SOBHAN, son of late Noimuddin, Pathartala, Pabna, is the member of the fundamentalist Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami’ s central Shura (committee) and Member of Parliament elected from Pabna Sadar in 1991, and deputy leader of the Jamaat’s parliamentary group.

Sobhan had been serving the Jamaat-e-Islami as acting Ameer (chief) of Pabna during the liberation war and he nominated for the so-called by-election in 1971. He was the vice president of Pabna unit of Peace Committee, an organisation of Pakistani collaborators. Field level investigation revealed that Sobhan organised the Al-Badar, Razakar and formed the PC and had been involved in a number of criminal activities. As he was fluent in spoken Urdu, he easily managed to come close to the Pakistanis and become a policy maker of anti-liberation forces. He supervised almost every activities of the Razakers and Al Badars.

Sobhan was implicated in a special tribunal case for his activities against the freedom struggle and killing of the freedom fighters, innocent people and assisting in killing 3 million people, assaulting and repressing women and other heinous activities. He was asked to attend before the Sub-divisional magistrate court on February 29, 1972. But he fled to Pakistan with Gulam Azam at that time (Source : ‘Ekattorer Dalalra’ by Shafiq Ahmed and Advocate Shafiqul Islam Shibly, Patahrtala Pabna).

Like Dhaka, Pakistani forces also unleashed attack on innocent people of Pabna on the very night of March 25, 1971. But the situation in Pabna was a bit different. An aged woman told the investigation commission that the Pakistani forces caught Pabna’s eminent personalities searching their homes and brought to their camps on the night. On March 26, she said that she had been seeing an army lorry stopped on the road at Rayer Bazar area. More or less 100 people were tied with rope behind the van. They were being dragged. Their clothes have been tore, blood letting from injury marks. She witnessed Mowlana Sobhan along with three Pakistani soldiers in the van. Among the dragged people, the woman could recognised Pabna’s eminent businessmen Syed Talukder, Professor Harun of Edward College, dentist Amulendu Dakshi and Awami League Leader Advocate Aminuddin. The soldiers came down from the lorry and burnt some national flags hoisting on the building tops. The
woman preferring anonymity said the soldiers killed all the people they dragged to various points within March 29. She farther said that, on 27 March she went to visit Amalendu Dakshi’s residence. Dakshi’s wife informed her, it was Maolana Sobhan who came to pick her husband.
Senior Advocate of Pabna Judge Court and former Public Prosecutor Awami League leader Golam Hasnaen said, “Sobhan took the Pakistan Army to the residence of Awami League leader Aminuddin.” Sobhan organised all the Al Badar, Razakar and Peace Committee members. Daily Ittefaq’s Pabna correspondent Anwarul Haq and Advocate Shafiqul Haq Shibly said that Sobhan inspired the Pakistan army to kill Pabna Zilla School teacher Kochimuddin. He also directed killing of freedom fighter and musician Shadhon, informed Shadhon’s mother Sufia Begum.
Retired principal Md. Abdul Ghani of Kalachand Para, Pabna, said Sobhan along with the Pakistani soldiers raided hindu-dominated Kuchiapara and Shankharipara on April 17. Eight people including Sudhir Chandra Chowdhury, Ashok Kumar Shaha, Gopal Chandra Chowdhury were killed during the operation. The army torched as many as 25 homesteads, looted valuables and assaulted the Hindu women.
He said a strong group of collaborators led by Sobhan, Ishaq, Tegar and many others killed over 1000 people and torches homes in Faridpur thana in Pabna district in the month of May. The second largest mass killing in Pabna took place in Sujanagar. It was one of the dawn of the first week of May, the Pakistanis’ killed some 400 people at Nazirganj in Satbaria, according to freedom fighter Zahirul Islam Bishu. He said his Mujib Bahini had arrested one of the gang leader Moulavi Modhu in late May and later killed him. Modhu during the interrogation admitted that before they go for attack they had a meeting ahead of the attack at Sobhan’s residence. He said before any attack the collaborators used to had meeting at Sobhan’s residence.
Maulana A K M Yousuf
MAULANA A K M YOUSUF, village-Rajoir, Thana-Saran Khola, District-Bagerhat. Presently he is the Naeb-e- Ameer of the Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh. He was one of the leading anti-liberation organizers during the 1971 war. As part of his role in the anti-liberation activities he became a member of Malek cabinet during the war. He first formed ‘Razakar Bahini’ comprising 96 members of Jamaat-e-Islami in Khulna district. He became the leader of the Jamaat well before the freedom War started. He started his anti-Bangladesh role and cooperating the Pakistani forces as soon as the war began on March 25.. His responsibilities were to issue statement, organize the anti-liberation forces and lead attacks, killing, looting and arson by his groups. He also helped the members of the Pakistani forces to do the same.

His statements published in the newspapers where he opposed the liberation war and urged the collaborators to resist the pro-liberation forces. On October 10, 1971, this anti-liberation leader praised activities of the Razakars in a public rally and said, “we will have to make the people understand that the so-called Bangladesh concept is created by Indian authorities is valueless. Naxalaits, separatists and criminals are trying to create anarchy in this part of the country. They should be ousted by root.” (Genocide ’71, Muktijuddha Chetana Bikish Kendra, Dhaka, February 1987).

On October 26, at a gathering in Sylhet, he said, “a section of ignorant youths inspired by Indian propaganda has been unleashing separatist activities on our land. You spread over every nook and corner of the country to resist this movement and uproot the concept of so-called Bengali nationalism” . He warned the allied forces saying, “Had there been any war imposed on them, then heroes of Razakar and soldiers would face with all courage.” On November 12, 1971, he praised the Razakar activities while visiting Razakar camps in Shatkhira. He commented, “the Razakars have been doing their best to resist the spies and intruders of India”. He also assured the Razakars that he would provide them with government jobs.

On November 28, while he was discussing with newsmen in Karachi, Yousuf said that the Razakar have been working hand in hand with the soldiers. He demanded supply of modern arms to the hands of razakars to eliminate freedom fighters. “now the number of Razakar and Al-shams stood to some 1 lakh. Apart from them, there were Mujahid bahini also. They all are in guarding the borders along with the soldiers. The razakars have been operating successfully resulting in reduce of criminal activities”. (Ibid)

Guljan Bibi, a mother of martyr Shahid Seikh, informed that one Razakar Khaleq Member asked her son to join in the Razakar Bahini during the monsoon of freedom War. As Shahid rejected his proposal, the member called him out a month after. On the same day she learnt that her son was handed to the Pakistani forces. Later she rushed to the founder of the Razakar force, Maolana A K M Yousuf and requested him to free his son. At that time Khaleq Member was also with Yousuf who turned down her request. Guljan Bibi did not get her son back, later she came to learn that Pakistanis killed her son. Guljan demanded trial of her son’s killing.

Yousuf along with his associates Khaleque and Adam Ali had killed number of males and females during the war. They raped many women. These information were disclosed by the citizens of Khulna, but still after 24 years of independence they are tight lipped for the sake of their own security. One of them told the commission that Yousuf forced many people from his own area Morelganj to join in the Razakar force. He forced them to work against the liberation war. Yousuf’s headquarters was the then ‘Ghost House’ which is now being used as district Anasr camp. This camp was the prime torture centre. Apart from this they used to torture the freedom-loving people at Khulna Shipyard, Bhashani Biddalaya and many other camps. They also killed people at such places wherever they felt comfortable. They handed over the innocent Bengalis to Pakistani Army stationed at the prime camp Circuit House, and other makeshift camps at Helipad, Naval base, hotel Shahin, Asiana
Hotel etc. The Razakar and other fundamentalist forces maintained regular connection with the camps. They used to kill the people at Gallamari, forest Ghat, Station road and some other places.
Mohammad Ayen ud Din
ADVOCATE MOHAMMAD AYEN UD DIN, son of Late Md. Moinuddin, Village and Post Office : Shaympur, thana : Motihar, District : Rajshahi. He serves the Muslim League as Secretary General and work as an advocate in the Dhaka High Court. The Muslim League leader resorted to do whatever needed to oppose the creation of Bangladesh. He was the chairman of the then Peace Committee (PC) Rajshahi region and he contested by-election to the then provincial assembly from Rajshahi-13 constituency. Under his direct supervision the Peace Committee, Razakar Force and Al Badar Force were constituted in Rajshahi at that time. He and his associates led all the killings outside the battlefields in the northern Rajshahi area.

“They have been able to face the enemy with unlimited tolerance. Normalcy restored all over Rajshahi. Peace Committee was formed at every sub-division, thana and union levels,” he told the Daily Azad in an interview on May 31, 1971, after the formation of the PC. On August 4, 71 the Daily Sangram reported – “The closing session of the first batch training of Razakar Bahini held at Jinnah Islamic Institution. The trainees took oath on the Koran. In his speech, Ayenuddin advised the Razakar Bahini to do their duties sincerely for an integrated Pakistan. Local personalities and military officers attended the function.”

His kin and kith and locals alleged that Ayenuddin indulged him in killing, torching, looting, repressing the women, forced joining to the Razakar forces and appointing of some persons against their willingness for bridge vigilance. He was also charged with looting assets and property of innocent people who were handed over to Pakistani military by him.

Freedom fighter Advocate Abdullah-hil- Baki and Professor Zinnatunnesa told the Inquiry commission that Ayenuddin started announcing by microphone in the city that if anyone catches Baki, live or dead then he will be awarded Taka 10,000. Ayenuddin, in a letter (D-44 CPC Date 13-09-71) to the then army captain, Mohammad Ilius Khan provided a list of 10 people from the city with a request for immediate arrest. Baki was one among the ten.

Baki said one Abdur Rahman (son of Solaiman, village- Ramchandarpur, thana-Paba), listed in the letter, was arrested from Parila village in September. During a army raid in that area Pakistani forces killed some 30 people at the village and torched some 150 homesteads.
Zinnatunnesa said Ayenuddin killed one Harunur Rashid of Chandua village in Tanore thana because of rivalry over property in April. Then he took away Harun’s nine-year old girl and 13-year old daughter-in- law and then handed over to the Pakistani soldiers, according to an eyewitness of Harun killing.

Awami League district unit vice president and central member of Bangladesh Krishak League Abdus Sobhan told the investigation team that Ayenuddin helped arrest of nine people, including Rahimuddin Sarker, his son Pintu. These nine was later killed at a killing field behind the Joha hall of Rajshahi University.

In late November, he said, Ayenuddin in association with the army picked up Aminul Haq Chowdhury, a hotel owner, Mokbul Chowdhury, Advocate Taslim Uddin, Contractor Altaf Hossain, Nowrozuddula Khan, Advocate Abul Hossain and many others. On December 18, after two day of the victory, the bodies of most of them were recovered from a sandy shoal in the Padma. There were no injury mark on the bodies and it was assumed that all of them were buried alive in the sand.

Sobhan said that Ayenuddin had grown up at their home and studied from there. “But he killed my father in 1955 when he was hardly a student of intermediate. He was implicated in the murder case, but he was spared because two of the juries, from the then Muslim League, helped him to escape.

Preferring anonymous, one local said that the Pakistan army raided a village and arrested several hundred people from there. Ayenuddin came to the scene and separated five of them and asked the army personnel to kill them. Two of them were killed in the hand of Pakistanis, the rest three were released. These five had been campaigning against him during the provincial election held under Pakistani army junta.
Ali Ahsan Muhammad Mujahid.
ALI AHSAN MUHAMMAD MUJAHID, now is one of the assistant secretary general of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh. He was the president of East Pakistan Islami Chhatra Shangho and chief of the Al Badar Bahini in Dhaka in 1971. As per his commitment to the party, Mujahid helped in the massacre, looting and women repression during the 71. He led the killings of the intellectuals only two days ahead of the victory of the war.

His anti-liberation activities were evident from his statements published in the then newspapers. While addressing a function of the Chhatra Shangha in Faridpur on September 15, ’71, he had announced that they should have captured Assam before taking control of India. He called upon his cadres to be prepared for such actions. He was quoted in a report published on October 15, as saying that Mujahid criticised Bhutto, Kawsar Niazi and Mufti Mahmud for their objectionable comments on the Razakars and Al Badars. “The youths of the Razakars and Al Badar forces and all other voluntary organisations have been working for the nation to protect it from the collaborators and spy of India. But, recently it was observed that a section of political leaders like Z A Bhutto, Kawsar Niazi, Mufti Mahmud and Asgar Khan have been making objectionable remarks about the patriots.” He called upon the government to take measures to stop such activities by the sections of
leaders. And at the same time he urged the students to come back to classes and help the army to bring back normalcy.

In another statement on October 25, Mujahid called upon for observing Badar day on 17 Ramadan and said, ‘We are now facing anti-islamic forces. We will today take oath for the interest of the nation to establish Islam in the country.’ (Genocide ’71 Muktijuddha Chetona Bikash Kendra, Dhaka February 1987).

Mujahid used to stay at various homes in Fakirerpul and Nayapaltan in Dhaka during 1971. His main place was 181, Fakirerpul, Garompanir Golli of some Feroz Mia. This Feroz was a commander of Razakar forces, according to eyewitness accounts of Jatiya Party leader Abdus Salam, journalist GM Gaus, freedom fighter and columnist Mahbub Kamal.

This home was not only the den of local Razakars, but all the anti-liberation forces had been thronging to this house to make their plan. Razakars were used to use this home as their training centre and meeting place. Many people were taken at this home blind folded and they were being subject to torture. Mujahid was the gang-chief. As he was the party chief, his associates were bout to execute his directives.

GM Gaus said that they have known Mujahid as a leader of one Islamic organisation. He used to stay on rent in the area and tried to convince the general students to join in his party from ’70. After March ’71, the entire Razakar Bahini was formed in the area under his direct supervision. He nominated Feroz Mia as the local commander and organised armed training for the recruited Razakars. Mujahid was also responsible for collecting money and arms.. During the mid-way of the war, Mujahid started operation at various places and picked up intellectuals and resorted to torture on them. Even he led the operation in Dhaka University to kill the teachers, scientists and the writers, said Gaus.

Abdus Salam echoed Gaus saying as a central leader Mujahid’s activities were spread all over the city. “I recovered a number of important documents and photos from Firoz Mia’s home. The evidences included list of Dhaka’s Razakars, their bio-data and various photographs of their activities. Later, the documents were lost during police raids at my home,” he said. After the victory, Firoz Mia’s home was used temporarily a camp of the freedom fighters.

Columnist Mhabub Kamal termed the home as the den of conspiracy. The Razakers used to raid the homes of freedom fighters from this home. He said the residence of the then union Awami League leader Jobed Ali was raided several times. “They also searched home of one of my friend, Nazu, who was missing since August at that year. It is assumed that Nazu was killed by Feroz Mia and his gangs.” He said during the liberation war one of his cousin, Mohsin, came in Dhaka in search of a job. Mohsin used to offer his daily prayer at the Mosque where Mujahid asked him to join the Razakar Bahini. Later, we sent him to Rajshahi secretly to save him from Mujahid.

According to locals, Firoz Mia formed a Razakar platoon of 300 who had been killing innocent people. They resorted to repression on the women in the area. One of the noted footballers who was taken by Feroz’s men said he was brutally tortured at that home. He found a number of hapless young women tied up in houses. They were being tortured everyday. (Genocide ’71 Muktijuddha Chetona Bikash Kendra, Dhaka February 1987)

Photos of anti-liberation activities by Mujahid were also brought up in the newspapers. A photo caption contained in the daily Azad that the Al Badar chief Ali Ahsan Muhammad Mujahid speaking at a street corner rally of the Al Badars issuing warning to the rumour creators.
His anti-liberation activities and acts of terrorism were not stopped in the 1971. Mujahid has been continuing the same until today. According to a news report in the weekly Bichitra that in 1978 Shibir activists killed their opponent student leader, Abdus Sobhan. It was learnt that Mujahid led the killing.
ABM Khaleq Majumder
ABM KHALEQ MAJUMDER, son of Abdul Majid Majumder, Village: Dohatta, thana : Haziganj, District: Comilla. He was office secretary of the Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, Dhaka city unit, during the 1971 liberation war. Now he is not so active in politics. He helped the Pakistani forces as per his party belief during the war and he also killed many a people by his own hands. He had served as a commander of the Al Badar Bahini of the Jamaat during the war. He is charged with the intellectuals’ murders.

On December 14 evening, he along with his associates forcibly picked up the then joint-editor of daily ‘Sangbad’ and noted litterateur Shahidullah Kaiser from 29 Kayet Tuli. Kaiser did not returned, even his body was yet to be recovered. Shahidullah’ s wife Saifunnahar alias Panna Kaiser, Nasir Ahmed, husband of Shahidullah’ s youngest sister, younger brother Zakaria Habib and his wife Neela Jakaria witnessed the incident.

According to their witnesses account, due to the war a number of Kaiser’s relatives took shelter at his home. On the December 14 evening, Zakaria along with some others had been trying to listen to the ‘Sawdhin Bangla Betar Kendro’ (A radio station operated by the freedom fighters) programme. The entire area darkened due to blackout. At that time someone knocked loudly the outside door. Zakaria rushed to first floor. Shahidullah Kaiser was taking tea at the drawing room at that time, Neela was accompanying him. Informing that someone came at the door, Zakaria came down. Gripped by fear, Kaiser’s sisters and other switched on all the lights on the ground and first floor. Kaiser was trying to make a phone call, but the intruders entered breaking the door inside. They first knocked Obaidullah (younger brother of Shahidullah) down by the rifle butt. The masked-men went up to Shahidullah’ s bedroom. Identifying himself, Shahidullah wanted to know the reason
for their coming.

Getting Shahidullah’ s identity, one of the masked-men exclaimed saying “Mil gaya” (we got him) in Urdu and hold him by his hair. The others caught him by shirt, by hand and dragged him out. At that time wife Panna Kaiser, sister Shahana Begum and brother-in-law Nasir tried to rescue him from the cluster of the abductors. At one stage, Shahana tore one of the mask-men and everybody known him. Later, during identification of Khaleq Majumder in the court they said this man had gone to abduct Shahidullah Kaiser on the evening of December 14.
As the abductor was identified on the spot, he kicked Shahana and forcibly dragged out Shahidullah and Jakaria Habib. Shahidullah tried his best to resist the abductors, but failed. Finally, the abductors released Zakaria on the road but took away Sahaidullah by a waiting jeep. Khaleq Majumder was also the inhabitant of the area. He used to live at 47, Agamosi Lane.

Imam of the Kaet Tuli Mosque Ashrafullah who now works for the Banani graveyard said, on December 14, 1971 afternoon Khaleq Majumder wanted to know when Shahidullah Kaiser was available at his home. In response, Ashrafullah told him that he did not know. He even did not know that Majumder was looking for Kaiser to kill him. On that night, the Imam had been watching that Kaiser was trying hard to resist the abductors and was screaming ‘help, save me’. And a number of people were picking up in a jeep. On December 17, Ashrafullah informed it to Nasir Ahmed and Zakaria Habib.

On December 14 night, Nasir Ahmed informed about the abduction to Kotowali police station, but no service could be provided due to a lack of police administration at that time. After the country was freed from the occupation forces on December 16, Nasir Ahmed was looking for Khaleq Majumder and filed a case with Kotowali thana.

Khaleq Majumder fled from his home fearing reprisal for his activities. Nasir Ahmed, Zakaria Habib and others went to his home. But he was not there. They found a revolver loaded with bullets, plenty of important documents with names of military officers and members of the Al Badar forces. These evidences were handed to the investigation commission formed to find out the culprits of intellectuals’ killing. In fact: Nasir Ahmed along with a number of freedom fighters from Sector-2 had been looking for Khaleq Majumder to get Shahidullah Kaiser back. Finally, Majumder was arrested from one of his relative’s home in Malibagh. The case proved that he abducted Shahidullah Kaiser to kill him and the court in its verdict on July 17 (1972) awarded Khaleq Majumder seven years of rigorous imprisonment and a fine of taka 10,000. As Khaleq was convicted based on specific charges, he was out of the purview of the general amnesty announced by the then Prime Minister
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

But with the changed political scenario, Khaleq Majumder got acquitted from the case on appeal to the High Court on April 29, 1976 during the Ziaur Rahman’s regime.

In his book “shikol Pora Dingulo’ Khaleq himself admitted that he was the secretary of Jamaat office of Siddique Bazar. His party was against the independent war in 1971. They had been assisting the Pakistani forces by mobilising Razakar and Albadar forces and directly involved themselves in genocide, rape, arson, torching etc. He admitted that due to his loyalty to the party he had to implement those things. He also admitted that he was well know with the other war criminal Matiur Rahman Nizami and operation in charge of intellectuals’ killing Chowdhury Moinuddin. It was also learnt from his book that he maintained very good relations with the Pakistan army. In his book that came out 14 years after the independence, he expressed his hatred to the Bangladesh’s freedom. When seventy million people were expressing their joys with the victory on December 16, 1971, the writer of the book was feeling frustrated saying “Alas! Everybody was surprised ….on
that very morning one Jamaat leader sent me to the Jamaat office in a hurry… my mind was disappeared with disappointment listening to the news. …” (Shikol Pora Dinguli, page 10). He continued writing “I was not certain about my future. But I did not feel well. The day was ended with a long breath of frustration. The night fell down with all its darkness. The fortunate star bade good-bye from our sky etc.”
Dr. Syed SaJJad Hossain
PROFESSOR SYED SAJJAD HOSSAIN was the Vice-Chancellor of Rajshahi University during the early times of the war. He was appointed VC of Dhaka University in May 1971. He was active against the war of independence at that time. He had been trying to save his misdeeds by issuing press statements praising the activities of the Pakistan army. And he had used to maintain regular lesion with the army.

On January 10, 1972, a ‘Dainik Bangla’ report said “Dr. Sajjad had foreign trip to propagate against Independent Bangladesh within a few days of attacking by notorious Yahia’s army on the innocent people.” One of his letters were published in the London Times newspaper. The letter carried, “It was not right what is being told to be happened in Bangladesh.” He opined in the letter that the Pakistani forces were not responsible for the post-March 25 killings of the teachers of Dhaka University inside the campus. They died of cross firing of two groups. Mentionable, those who died on March 25 and 26 by the army were the classmates of Dr. Sazzad.

A letter with his signature published in the Dainik Bangla newspaper on January 10, 1972 is still being considered as one of the proof of his collaboration with Pakistan. He wrote, according to the office order of London Embassy of Pakistan I should be paid money as per the following rate.-a) 50% D/A from June 24 to July 1, 25 pound 25 penny as per three pound 75 penny per day. b) 150 pound cash. My hotel fare will be given latter.

Dr. Sajjad was the number one signatory of a statement of 55 professors, writer, journalists and artists denouncing the war. The joint statement was published in the papers on May 17, 1971, which condemned the liberation New York based International University Emergency
Committee for extending its support to the Bangladeshi people. The statement termed the war as an Indian mission and the university was being used for political purposes. It also said that extremists in the Awami League has been making the simple demand of autonomy into an independent state. “We are frustrated with the demand … we had been expressing our grievances within the one sate structure.. we never wanted such happening, as a result we become very sorry and frustrated with the developments. ”
Conclusion
According to the investigation by the National People’s Inquiry Commission, the logic of trial for the aforesaid eight persons are valid. As they have been assisting an organised force for massacre, war crime, anti-human right activities and indulging them in the similar crimes, their trial is under the purview of international and national laws. The international laws of war crime are base on the historic Nuremberg and Tokyo trial. And the United Nations conventions, declaration, and the human rights documents emphasised trial of war crimes and crimes related to the violation of human rights.

Many countries have introduced laws for trial of the war criminals to uphold the moral base. Bangladesh is not an exception. Bangladesh introduced the International Crime (Tribunal) Act 1973 was defined to try the offences under anti-peace, war crimes, human rights violation and genocide related crimes. The law also defined the crime of imposing an unusual war on a section of people despite having political, religious, race, language and cultural differences, and resorted to killing, raping, detaining, destroying their property, and also help doing this misdeeds. The act suggested formation of special tribunal and to take evidences from the then newspapers, media as witnesses.

The Inquiry Commission after reviewing the offences of the accused and related laws came to a conclusion that these criminals can be tried under the International Crime (Tribunal) Act 1973.

To make the sovereignty of Bangladesh safe and sound, to ensure peace, human rights and dignity these criminals (killers, collaborators and war criminals) must be brought to the justice. Bangladesh has an elected government in office now. The government as well as the opposition parties are talking about human rights. The National People’s Inquiry Commission believes without trying those who assisted the Pakistani occupation forces during the unequal war, those who resorted to killing, torture, rape, torched homesteads, and participated directly or indirectly to the massacre, democracy and human rights cannot be upheld. In this regard the responsibility goes to the government. The government has the authority to try such offence.

The commission strongly recommends trial of these offences under the International Crime (Tribunal) Act of 1973. In this connection this commission recommends further to revival of the laws, repealed herewith, and ensure trial of the offences against humanity.
Sufia Kamal
Chairperson
National People’s Inquiry Commission
Dhaka, 26 March 1995
Posted by Isha Khan, who can be reached at bdmailer@gmail.com

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