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Raw’s Machination In South Asia
July 22, 2008, 11:12 am
Filed under: SubContinent

Raw’s Machination In South Asia

By Shastra Dutta Pant from Nepal 

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) is an agency that is always on the lookout for a role for such interference. It analyzes the situation and works out plans accordingly.

His Majesty King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev had‚ on the occasion of the 53rd Democracy Day on Feb 19‚ 2003‚ said: “Peace is our need‚ multiparty democracy is our commitment‚ patriotism is our base and the resolve to make the Nepalis happy is the dharma (or essence) of our politics.”

People will directly experience the fruits only if our development projects gain speed in an unobstructed way. Such fruits can be experienced only if all political parties‚ the civil society and government forge an understanding and maintain coexistence. The habit of making suspicions and mutual recriminations will be removed only if we practise good moral conduct and honesty. Spiritual thinking and moral education will enhance honesty and dedication to the nation. Only in such condition will democracy flourish

The main purpose behind writing this book is to enhance the feeling of patriotism‚ make the Nepalese people happy and remove hurdles standing in the way. Nepal wants to have good‚ friendly relations with India. We don’t have any ill-intention to hurt India or to show unfriendly behavior. It is the democratic as well as natural right of a nation to express its problems and sufferings. At this point of time‚ the Indo-Nepal relation is deep‚ bitter as well as suspicious. Nepal’s formal relations are with the government of India but reality stands far removed.

Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Great, not only unified Nepal into a nation‚ but also worked out plans for its sustainable development and security. The successors of the great king bound with the Vedic rules to conduct the government in consonance with the people’s aspirations relentlessly safeguarded the nation. As a result‚ Nepal saved itself from being colonized and remained independent.

Even today‚ it has been proved that none except the monarchy can protect democracy and human rights‚ and keep the country independent and sovereign. The monarchy has never abused power. The power lying with monarchy is just like the paddy kept in a granary‚ which is‚ when needed‚ taken and filled when empty.

Notwithstanding other things‚ we must acknowledge that the Rana oligarchy that lasted for 104 years efficiently saved the nation‚ nationality‚ national self-dignity and national identity.

During the 30-year old Panchayati democratic dispensation‚ not only was our nationality consolidated‚ Nepal also carved a distinct identity of its own in the world. As a result‚ pillars of physical infrastructures were erected. It is because of the state’s concern in basic goods that the people could buy things at cheaper prices. This was a time when the people could have good‚ sound sleeps even in the courtyard or open space without any fear. But today the country’s situation is deteriorating unimaginatively it is degenerating day by day.

The people who had extended their share of contribution to bring about changes in the country 13 years ago are now repenting. Full employment‚ high quality of life‚ physical facility‚ adequacy of goods and services‚ poverty alleviation and balanced development all turned into dreams. Today the people have their only one wish- independence‚ sovereignty‚ integrity‚ democracy and development. The barbarism of the last one and half decade has pushed the country a centuary back. Our living standard has alarmingly deteriorated.

The hope with which the people had contributed their share to bring about political change in the country was dashed when the governments formed thereafter could not live up to it.

The situation became more and more complicated. The government failed in providing good governance‚ peace and security. Politics was employed as a means of amassing wealth rather than as a means for people’s service. Works are being carried out against the laws‚ rules and the Constitution. Unethical trend is all pervasive. Dissensions within the parties are growing and factions and sub-factions have been formed.

Individualism has become dominant to the extent of affecting political purity and democratic development. People have panicked. Signals are being received from all quarters that the nation and nationality are at stake.

Corruption‚ commission-mongering‚ high prices‚ black-marketeering and crimes have raised their heads on a large scale. Every sector including administration has been politicized or politically divided. Such trend has discouraged qualification and ability to compete. Because of such discouragement‚ the policies of privatization‚ globalization‚ democracy‚ liberalism‚ democratic-socialism turned out be counter-productive. Decisions have become prejudiced‚ politically-motivated and discriminatory. Consequent to this‚ development‚ expansion and improvement of multilateral infrastructures required for revolutionizing the national economic development is not taking place.

The country’s economy is continuously on the downward trend. Productive and service-oriented sectors are passing through a very confusing state. The number of the people reeling below poverty line has increased. Nepal has become one of the most deprived nations of the world. The sectors already attaining self-reliance have now fallen off and the burden of loans has grown bigger unnaturally. The irregularities have made an upward swing‚ hobnobbing with the annual national budget. Industrial enterprises are getting closed down‚ have gone into the hands of foreigners.

Trade deficit is snowballing. No long-term policies have been devised‚ as should be desirably done by a welfare state‚ to uplift women‚ Dalits and oppressed communities and to ensure balanced development of remote areas. With the implementation of foreign policies against the principles of non-alignment‚ neutrality and Panchasheel‚ the problems relating to border‚ Bhutanese refugees‚ water politics‚ and trade and industry have taken a nasty turn.

Known as a model of unity in diversity in the world‚ the country is gradually slipping into the trap of communalism. National defence system has started shaking with the rise of internal dissensions and external interference. Briefly speaking‚ all sensitive issues that have a close bearing on the ordinary people including nationality have not been given a damn.

And what lies at the bottom of this all is the weak politics steeped in vested interests and external interference. There are basically two reasons why Nepal has not been able to make headway- India and western consultants. The first one has been detailed in this book. India is seeking its role even in the internal matters of Nepal. The ordinary people have not taken this palatably.

Rather the organized parties‚ intellectuals following in their footsteps and mediapersons have not been able to stand up to it‚ being sensitive to the nation. If all these parties‚ the civil society and the media become united‚ the outside interference can do us nothing at all. My duty‚ my dharma‚ is to take this message to everyone‚ change their mind and contribute to upgrading the people’s quality of life by making use of our indigenous means and resources independently.

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) is an agency that is always on the lookout for a role for such interference. It analyzes the situation and works out plans accordingly. We will further go down if we walk at the signal of the others.

We can get the country to the height of progress and prosperity provided that we forge unity among ourselves and move ahead by devising policies about politics‚ economics and development.

Finally‚ I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all friends and those who have helped me for their invaluable suggestions and encouragement.


Chapter-1 Introduction to Intelligence
Chapter-2 State Polity and Inteligence
Chapter-3 Organizational Structure of RAW
Chapter-4 RAW’s Treatment Towards its Neighbors
1. Movement of RAW in Sri Lankan Civil War
2. Movement of RAW in Bhutan
3. RAW and Defence System of the Maldieves
4. RAW and Pakistan
5. RAW in the Freedom Struggle of Bangladesh
6. Role of RAW in Sikkim Operation
7. RAW and Nepal

Chapter-5 Nepal-India Relations
Nepal-India Panchangi Relations

– Relatins Between the Governments of Nepal and India
– Relations Between the Parties of Nepal and India
– People-to-People Relations Between Nepal and India
– Relations Between the Bureaucracies of Nepal and India
– Nepal’s Relations with India’s RAW

Chapter-6 Attitude and Intention of RAW Towards Nepal
Chapter-7 RAW‚ Nepal Game Plan and Citizenship Bill
Chapter-8 Movement of RAW in Sikkim: Lessons for Nepal
Chapter-9 Tyrannized Areas of Nepal
Area-One Intentions
Area-Two Border Encroachment
Area-Three Water Politics
Area-Four Tyranny in Defence System
Area-Five Micro Action Macro Design
Chapter-10 Intelligence System in Nepal
Chapter-11 Suggestions to Resolve Problems
a. Things Both Nepal and India Should Follow
b. Things to be Followed by India
c. Things to be Followed by Nepal
d. Things the World and UN Should Do

Reference Materials

Chapter One
Introduction to Intelligence

Every society regardless of time and space has destructive elements with evil character. There is no dearth of persons seething with anger‚ hatred‚ jealousy‚ envy‚ temptation‚ revenge and ambition. Even the persons calling themselves influential and scholars or intellectuals suffer from a bizarre tendency of seeking to enhance their self-image by subjugating all others. Just like this‚ every nation nurtures the whims of subjugating other nations and wrapping them around its little finger by commanding their loyalty.

So the state also can be likened to individuals in terms of the negative qualities in question. Evil thinking‚ evil behaviour and evil trends are existent in the state since it is nobody but individuals who run the state.

To get better of the distorted mindset‚ many saints and sages have spent their years in penance and carried out investigation into it. They arrived at a conclusion that there was no alternative to the light of knowledge to remove such ill-trend. They interpreted the existence of God in a refined form. Though God or the Supreme Being is one at whose beck and call the world throbs‚ for reasons of the people being settled in different areas‚ many religions came into being.

Man is so irrational that he is indulged in violence and earns enmity over the same religion. For example, Gautam Buddha who contributed to building a peaceful society by putting an end to wars‚ violence and weapons gave a new turn to the existing religion. But the followers’ of the same man, out of foolishness, have resorted to wars‚ violence and killings‚ ironically in the protection of the same religion.

Sages and saints described material goods and sex as the two major factors contributing to the growth of unsocial elements and pursued various ways to get freed of them. They taught and explained to the world about heaven and hell. They dwelt on rebirth, and virtues and vices. They also taught that all material objects are perishable and the only stable thing is Supreme Being (Sarva khalu idam brahma). They further elaborated that the Supreme Being is so widespread (Neti neti para brahma) that its knowing is beyond comprehension. This is why an extensive publicity has been made for thousands of years to link oneself with the Supreme Being and not to run after the material wealth and sexual desire.

Furthermore‚ our thinkers of yore created Vedas‚ Sub-Vedas‚ Codes‚ Upanishads‚ Vedang (Branches of Vedas)‚ histories‚ Purans (character building holy scriptures) and philosophies. They worked out different plans to put into practice the principles enshrined in these holy scriptures. Purans and histories were used to teach the people moral values as the moving schools.

In every settlement‚ they constructed temples and preached the people about what is God. The people were advised to stand in awe of God and not to commit any immoral or unethical acts. They caused to install the Panchayan God in every household and developed the practice of pondering over God and death at mornings and evenings. They commenced different types of feast and festivals and gave rise to the practice of going to far-flung areas on pilgrimages.

Such pilgrimages are found in every religion- Hindu (four dhams)‚ Buddha (Lumbini)‚ Muslims (Mecca)‚ Christians (Vatican City). They also developed the practice of performing such rites as bratabandha‚ marriage‚ birth‚ death‚ sporting sikha‚ sacrificial fires‚ coronations( taking oaths ceremony) and conducting investiture ceremony.

Moral education like Panchatantra was begun to be taught at schools. Despite all these things‚ ill-thoughts deeply rooted in human mind could not be removed it could only be minimized. It is essential to keep society safe from such distortions and anomalies. And it is the state’s responsibility to keep the people safe from these things‚ for which it needs prior information. This very approach of collecting information is known as intelligence. Without effective intelligence‚ the state in the modern age becomes emasculated and useless.

Checks on Distortions

Today’s society is fraught with distortions and anomalies in various forms. Narcotics trade is booming with an adverse effect on human mind. Piles and piles of chemicals likely to cause an adverse impact on the environment and obliterate the entire human beings‚ arms and ammunition‚ nuclear weapons‚ bio-chemical weapons and hydrogen and atom bombs have been produced. Theft‚ smuggling‚ loots‚ dishonesty and black-marketeering are on the rise. Acts of arson‚ vandalism and violence can be noticed everywhere. Terrorism is all-pervasive. Corruption in the form of taking bribes has caused a stir.

Needless to say‚ persons holding high offices should be honest with high level of integrity. Such persons should muster courage to take actions against the employees under him or any other persons in case they are found taking or giving bribes or abusing their authority. Clean image of such persons will instil a sense of fear into persons lower them. This will‚ in turn‚ ensure protection of the helpless in society. Corruption and abuse of authority will not be allowed to rule the roost.

But today Nepal is placed in an awkward situation. The country’s prime minister and his family members themselves have taken bribes. The ministers holding important portfolios have taken bribes. MPs or people’s representatives too are not an exception. Those on the opposition have taken bribes either through collusion or through bargaining.

The policemen who are entrusted with the responsibility of containing corruption themselves collect money on weekly basis and hand over it to their seniors. Even the police chief has amassed inestimable wealth. The judicial sector is no better than customs or VAT (Value Added Tax) department. There is a glaring example of the high-ranking justices compelling the parliament to frame laws with no power to subject them to face corruption charge. The verdicts made by this body established with the noble objective of ensuring the rule of law in clear violation of laws are now in thousands. The Office of the Auditor General‚ the Public Service Commission and the Election Commission are also cast in the same mould.

Similarly‚ several such incidents have been noticed in the military service also. Immorality and corruption are rampant in the trade and industry sector. Teachers and students are in corruption. There is not even a single sector on which we can rest our faith.

The need to put checks on all these distortions gave rise to the birth of intelligence agency. According to Markendeya Puran‚ the king must possess six attributes and conduct eight deeds. A small simal (a kind of cotton bearing tree) seed may grow into a big tree and a small spark may cause a huge fire. Similarly‚ enemies and unsocial elements may bring about destruction at an opportune moment if they are allowed to raise their heads. To protect oneself from such elements‚ the state should tone up its intelligence system. Just as air gets into the living beings and keeps them alive‚ the king also must be able to understand the real conditions of the people inside and outside the country through espionage (Markendeya Puran).

Rishis and Munis tought us that revenge and use of force will only enlarge such unwanted activities. If the money to be used on wars is replaced for building a moral man by means of education the society might change.


Intelligence means peering at others for one’s own security. Now this definition has expanded to include the acts designed to weaken others‚ subjugate them and get them wrapped around one’s own finger. On the other hand‚ copying of others’ technology and skills and keeping others in deprivation even after one has become prosperous also falls within the framework of intelligence.

Since this approach helps to formulate strategies upon analysis of the related data‚ several intelligence agencies have been tagged before or after the word with “Research” and “Analysis”. The present world policy of “colonialism” and “neo-colonialism” match with the practice of “world emperor” and “horse sacrificial fire” prevalent during the mythological period of the oriental philosophy.

In oriental political system‚ a number of words have been coined to refer to the acts of a spy. These words include gudavekshan (digging out mysteries)‚ chatur (shrewd)‚ jaasus (spy)‚ sujhabujhi (wise)‚ char (informant)‚ chewa or chewi (one who provides secret information)‚ vartahar (messenger)‚ sulsule (secret agent)‚ etc‚ while the westerners use such words espionage‚ counter espionage‚ intelligence‚ spying‚ under-cover work‚ fifth columnist‚ foreign agent‚ secret agent‚ secret service and mole to describe the act of intelligence.

Any attempt to obtain secret information about an actual and potential enemy which might be used against the same or any other enemy is known as intelligence. Any secret of concealed action performed within are controlled by an actual and potential enemy for the purpose of weakening or destroying his defense (The Encyclopaedia America‚ Vol. 10‚ Page 504-506). Any enemy agent engaged in sabotage of similar activities would be considered as spy (Ibid).

Military Spy

In fact‚ in modern times‚ spies are used mostly in wars and areas associated with it. This means‚ spies are used by the military. When there is a possibility of outbreak of a war‚ war strategies are to be worked out in a highly confidential manner. For example‚ during the Falkland war‚ the British government had to detain informally several times BBC news reporters and correspondents after they leaked out several secret plans or strategies of the army.

The army pursues different processes in the course of collecting secret information which are as follows:

Situation making

Information collection

·Time management

Military intelligence is getting more and more complicated in these days as compared to the past. With the unprecedented development of electronic media‚ hostility has expanded even to the extent of waging a star war. The coming of sub-marines has added a new dimension to the naval war.

Building of warheads and of nuclear and biological weapons has made the espionage not only highly complicated but also dangerous and expensive. For poor countries‚ intelligence work now borders on impossibility. With the growth of industrialization‚ mechanization‚ communication and of weapons to inflict great damage and destruction‚ such things as intelligence and counter intelligence are virtually beyond the capacity of such countries no matter how important and significant they are. The poor countries are treated as slaves but in a revised form.

The developed countries out of neo-colonialist mentality have pursued the policy of keeping the poor countries poor and making them dance to their tune. The poor countries have been so suppressed that they have not been even able to raise their heads.

Besides‚ they have even created weapons-markets by dividing the people on the basis of party‚ caste‚ gender‚ ethnicity‚ settlement‚ profession‚ religion‚ customs and language. Nepal has fallen victim to such diseases. They sabotage the physical infrastructures‚ the social system and the politics which have already taken roots. By imposing blockade‚ they exert economic pressures. The December-7 incident of Pearl Harbour of the United States of America is often taken as an example of failure.


Written history is fraught with the movement of spies. Our Vedas and Purans also have a number of incidents with regard to good governance‚ war and intelligence. Conspiracy also falls within the definition of intelligence. It won’t be an overstatement to say that the great epic Mahabharat is a collection of conspiracies. There were ‘secret armies’ in the ancient Egypt. The holy Bible mentions the sending of 12 spies by Moses. The team included women also.

In modern times‚ intelligence (Char) is taken as an important organ of government. It is said that there were 30‚000 spies in the French-Persian war. Napoleon had given it the first priority.

Prior to the outbreak of the World War I‚ the world nations had already strengthened their intelligence service. The United States of America had framed the Intelligence Act way back in 1917. The Federal Bureau of Investigation was established in the USA only after the enactment of the Internal Security Act‚ 1950‚ Emergency Power Continuation Act‚ 1952 and Espionage and Sabotage Act‚ 1954. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is considered as the best center for providing correct information and statistics there.

After the World War I shook the very foundation of the world‚ espionage took on more and more modern forms.

Agency and Training

Any organization requires necessary manpower for its proper operation. Trained persons equipped with necessary skills can carry out works more effectively and efficiently than those without any formal training. And to become a spy‚ one must have a flair besides special trainings and skills. An individual wanting to work as spies should be adventurous and possess ability to sing and dance and be frolicsome. He should be light-hearted and be able to live a simple life. He must be multi-dimensional‚ alert and stand-by round the clock. Northen Hale of America and Sir Robert Powell fall into this category.

Spies deserve to be highly paid and provided with adequate facilities but those who are fired with patriotic feelings may not need so much money. Those who are not loyal to their own country may do espionage for the enemy and may get paid by the both sides. Highly selfish persons may betray the party he is involved in at any time. There is no dearth of such people in Nepal. Such persons may ditch both sides to get their vested interests fulfilled.

Almost all nations the world over have made necessary arrangements for selecting highly-motivated‚ mature individuals and provide them advanced trainings. Such trainings should not be provided to all and sundry. It is simply because that their slight mistake may spell a great disaster for the nation. The Germans had conducted advanced trainings for the spies. It was not an enjoyable task to spy on Hitler and the Nazis. Rather it was an uphill‚ precarious task fraught with dangers.

It was a profession which could even claim life. In the American Civil War of 1861-65‚ a man who stole a vehicle‚ blew up a bridge and broke into the enemy’s area was hanged as a spy. Any foreign agent who openly collects information cannot be called a spy‚ but if the same thing is done in a secret way‚ this is called espionage. This is both punishable as well as criminal.

In fact‚ both the ambassador and the military attaché of Embassies are “honorable spies.” International laws do not label espionage as crime‚ though every country has its own laws relating to espionage. Nepal has also such laws. Information with regard to science and technology also are as valuable as military information.

Cold War (USA-USSR)

During the cold war period‚ espionage between the United States of America and the erstwhile USSR intensified. When the atmosphere was charged with mutual suspicion and fear‚ the Soviet Union downed the U-2 spy plane of America and captured the spy alive. The similar incident involving an American spy plane has recently taken place in the People’s Republic of China. Even today‚ the rich and developed countries through a whopping investment are intensifying their espionage activities.

Art of Intelligence

A spy must be equipped with the knowledge and skills of code language. He should be well-conversed with the art of shorthand. He should possess such things as secret radio‚ special vehicle‚ diplomatic knowledge‚ fake passport‚ birth and marriage certificates‚ citizenship‚ etc. The art of understanding the information dissemination system of the enemy is indispensable for espionage.

Security and Democracy

Intelligence had a major role in the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 also. With the collapse of the Union‚ the world has become unipolar. That America shall have a dominant presence with the liberal economic policy‚ privatization,globalisation and multiparty democracy sweeping round the world‚ as predicted by the intellectuals‚ is proving wrong. Communism has taken a rebirth in the world’s competitive politics. Therefore‚ the rumor that espionage will make its exit does not hold water. The situation in this area is just as same.The importance of the state intellegence services is not reduced, till there is not a borderless state concept, universe as one country.

Chapter Two

State Polity and Intelligence

Man‚ by nature‚ is a wicked animal. Had man truly adhered to dharma‚ ethics‚ there would have been no need of the police‚ the army‚ the judiciary and administration. In other words‚ there would have been no need of the state polity. Not only is man wicked to mankind‚ he has proved to be destructive also. Had there been no existence of man‚ the earth’s eco-system would remain in a balanced form. The beautiful earth would continue to remain beautiful with greenery.

Since the very genesis of the earth‚ many civilizations came and went on the world stage. We have inherited the remnants of the past civilizations and are living in the present age of civilization. Our Vedas and Purans‚ Ramayan and Mahabharat are teeming with examples of both divine and demonic characters.

Though there is difference between these two characters‚ the exits of the two make the same result‚ that is‚ conflict and war. In war‚ every effort is made to wreak havoc against the enemy and safeguard oneself from suffering heavy damages. This kind of rivalry exists in a pluralistic polity but in a subdued form‚ while terrorism is an extremist expression of it.

Those who would like to get involved in conflict and wage war‚ it is urgently necessary to get the hang of the next party’s weaknesses‚ understand their strategies and to create chasms and contradictions between them. One who finds out the conspiracies woven by the opposition side is called “char” or spy. Espionage or spying is an art‚ a very old art. In the oriental political system‚ studies on the art of char have been in practice since a long time. In Panchatantra also‚ attempts have been to impart knowledge about this through animals and birds. Kautilya‚ in his Economics‚ has stated several types of espionage which are as follows:



This espionage belongs to the first category and is primarily psychoanalytical. Such spies possess the ability to get into the minds of others and understand their feelings. They often change their dresses depending on situation. They pretend to be students or teachers by taking up such professions. These spies may enjoy the privilege of directly informing the central minister or the king. They analyze potential harms and threats to the state or the institution of monarchy and supply secret information. Aghori Baba was this type of spy during the rule of late king Mahendra of Nepal.


The spies belonging to this category are Sanyasis and beggars. They wander about every house under the pretext of asking for alms. They are intelligent and well-educated. They stay in ashrams‚ maths or temples outside the village. They especially work among the farmers and try to command their loyalty. Others disguised as sadhus or saints also come to meet them. They provide the holy men with food‚ clothes and money for medical treatment. Then they take back the information to the concerned officers of the central level.


Spies of this category may be farmers or house owners or those who have already set up their houses. As these people have taken up espionage as a profession‚ they spend most of their time in understanding the wrongs and rights in the villages. They participate in assemblies‚ seminars‚ users’ groups‚ pubs or any forum they may come across. They want to give the impression that the state is doing well for the farmers and the people involved in other professions and inform the concerned body of those who oppose state policies.


These spies are involved in trade and industry and in this capacity‚ they carry out their activities in the business community. On the one hand‚ they study adulteration‚ blackmarketeering and hoarding of essential commodities‚ while on the other‚ they take special initiatives to make the businessmen act as wanted by the state. For example‚ they may issue press releases and statements stating that taxation policies and budget statements are good.


The spies belonging to this category exhibit abnormal or unruly behavior. They shave their heads‚ put on ear-rings and wear long‚ matted hair. They demonstrate such a behavior that is normally not accepted by society. They sometimes go without food‚ sometimes sit for penance and sometimes take unusual foods‚ thereby drawing the attention and winning the hearts of the people.

Thus they try to extract information. They often give good presents and conduct special pooja (worshipping). They call themselves Siddhababa (Enlightened)‚ ascetics or ones who can make predictions by reading hands and faces. They also frequently collect donations or alms by fist for some noble work in cities. They win the hearts of people through predictions about their profits and losses‚ penalty‚ fire and fear of thieves and things that are destined to happen. Thus they try to know the reality and supply the information they receive to the concerned authority or persons.

All these five spies have a status of their own and do not share information among themselves at all. Possibly one spy may always be spying on another. These are separate institutions. Besides‚ Chanakya [Kautilya] also considers the following four types of spies as useful:



The spies of this category are proficient in palmistry and hypnotism. They carry out their activities by using the art of hypnotism.


Those who have exceptional physical strength‚ special players‚ wrestlers‚ judo fighters‚ karantist‚ mountaineers‚ adventurers and those who do not fear even to fight with violent animals are appointed as spies by providing additional knowledge on espionage. Such spies are often used in places where dangerous works are to be carried even at the risk of life.


These spies are chosen from among those who are very cruel‚ unsocial‚ lethargic and even may go to the extent of doing anything to their own family or relatives. If need be‚ they may also go to the extent of poisoning their family members or kith and kin to death.


The spies fitting into this category are especially widows‚ the women who have been left neglected or dancers. They with some pretext go into houses and gather information.

The last four types of spies in question spy on those who run the country by appointing them. Such spies particularly spy for the crown prince‚ ministers‚ royal priests‚ army chief‚ heads and members of constitutional bodies‚ departmental chiefs‚ zonal chiefs‚ district judges‚ border guards and those who have been entrusted with the responsibility of putting brakes on corruption. They are concerned only with high-ranking officials.

They get mingled with the grassroots people to confirm the facts available. They are even sent to the houses of senior officials to work as cooks or servants and hence the name “Rasad.” They even work as baby-sitters‚ massagers‚ house cleaners‚ house maids‚ singers‚ dancers‚ and sometimes as fallen women‚ and find out the Achilles’ heels of those whom they are spying. After 1950 (2007 BS)‚ many foreign people had entered the Nepal Royal Palace as teachers. Several of them have already retired after holding high offices‚ but are yet to give a kick to espionage.

Such spies often take their stipend from the both sides. Families of such spies are taken care of by the same king or ministers who ask them to do so.

10. Special Spy

Good rulers often appoint other spies also to keep a close tab on these spies. Such special spies are recruited to know whether the spies appointed are doing their work properly as instructed in an enemy state‚ whether they are safe or not or whether they have teamed up with the enemy and are making money from both sides or whether they are betraying the nation.

The post of spy becomes instrumental in operating the state machinery properly. The absence of right implementation of the espionage system will spell disaster for all sectors. The country becomes unsafe. Malgovernance will take a precedence. Immorality and characterlessness will rule the roost. Corruption becomes all-pervasive. Injustice becomes rampant.

Spies are always needed to test loyalty to the nation of civil servants‚ the army and the police‚ high-ranking officials and those serving the constitutional bodies. They should be kept satisfied with both money and respect.

Providing pre-information on time about the potential conspiracy against the nation‚ the institution of monarchy and government constitutes the main duty of spies so that the state system can function effectively and properly. The nation must be able to acquire information about the loyalty of civil servants and those with a streak of rebellious nature. In order to maintain the purity of the civil servants‚ other techniques or methods also can be employed. Kautilya has prescribed the four methods for this which are as follows:


Dharmopagha: Relationships should be further improved with the amatya (equivalent to the post of minister in former times) or constitutional official who is to be examined. If he is found guilty of committing blunders or crimes‚ the king or government‚ many say‚ should relieve him of the post he is holding. But there are other views also.

A negative agenda enticing him may be presented. If he denies the accusations vehemently and resorts to scolding‚ he should be considered as just or else wrong. Similarly‚ the army chief‚ ministers‚ constitutional personalities‚ departmental heads also should be subjected to scrutiny. Such examination is often carried out keeping in mind the principles of religion.

Arthopagha: As in Dharmopagha‚ officials are baited with wealth. Their fascination with it will indicate that they are not civil servants and therefore deserve to be given walking papers. If otherwise is the case‚ he should be considered as right person.

Kamopagha: Under this‚ a beautiful woman full of sexual urge is chosen. If the person subjected to examination becomes sexually excited or motivated towards her‚ he is considered unfit.

Bhayopagha: This is the fourth technique employed to know the inclination of man. If some official sticks to his work without being deviated whatsoever despite the warnings that his and his family’s life is in danger in case he could not do the work‚ he should be considered as a good official. But if the opposite happens to be the case‚ he should be regarded as unfit.

Which officials should be transferred and where and who should be demoted or promoted may be done on the basis of the reports of the spies. According to Kautilya‚ those who pass through the test of Dharmopagha should be appointed in judicial service and those who emerge clean through Arthopagha should be appointed under the finance ministry. Similarly‚ those passing through the test of Kamopagha should be installed in posts that have to maintain public relations like social organizations‚ city offices or vihars and those who get through the test of Bhayopagha should be appointed as faithfuls by the king.

Those who can bring correct reports‚ understand right things and make others understand properly should be appointed to the post of amatya or minister. Only such persons should be given priority in elections. Only this will ensure good polity in the country with no injustice‚ corruption‚ oppression‚ characterlessness and favoritism. The nation will move towards progress and prosperity on a greater scale. The people will then become prosperous.


Posted by Isha Khan,


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