Isha khan’s Weblog

Ignoring India’s ‘republic of hunger’
November 26, 2008, 11:45 am
Filed under: India

Ignoring India’s ‘republic of hunger’

The BBC’s Soutik Biswas travels to the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, one of six states holding key elections, and asks why malnutrition has not been a major issue with politicians.

Sanju with his mother

Villager Tulsa says she cannot breast feed 18-month-old Sanju much “because I have very little milk”. Photos: Soutik Biswas

When did baby Richa finally fall silent? Social workers direct the question about the three-year-old girl to an extended family living in a mud-and-thatch hut in the bleak landscape of Jamoda in Madhya Pradesh. It is the country’s second biggest state in size and also one of its poorest.

The workers belong to a group that is raising the issue of chronic hunger and malnutrition. “She died recently. She had measles. The quack gave her an injection, but she did not survive,” says Kolai Bai, grandmother of the dead girl, matter-of-factly. She is now left with six grandchildren.

Date of election: 27 November
Counting of votes: 8 December
Total constituencies: 230
Total voters: 36054717
Total candidates: 3179

In these parts, more and more children like Richa are “falling silent” because of diseases associated with malnutrition and hunger.


But their deaths remain cold statistics; they largely escape the attention of political parties battling to win the upcoming state elections. Groups like the Right to Food Campaign insist that malnutrition is chronic in vast swathes of Madhya Pradesh.


Some 325 children, they say, have died of diarrhoea, measles and acute respiratory distress – diseases typically associated with severe malnutrition – in just four districts between May and October this year.

More worryingly, they say, the government is in complete denial.

Authorities blame illegal doctors for making matters worse and say the children are dying of diseases common elsewhere in India.


Jamoda village
Children in the tribal countryside suffer from malnutrition most

However, the first India State Hunger Index (Ishi) this year found that Madhya Pradesh had the most severe level of hunger in India, comparable to Chad and Ethiopia.

Even federal health surveys show that 60% of children under the age of six in the state are malnourished – more than 12% of these severely so.


The Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, which rules the state, does not mention the issue in its manifesto.

The opposition Congress party takes note of it and promises to make Madhya Pradesh a “malnourishment-free” state if voted into power.


Life struggle

Jamoda is one of the 20 villages in Khandwa district where 62 children have died from diseases associated with severe malnutrition in two months alone – September and October – according to investigations by an NGO engaged with the Right to Food Campaign.

 month-old Sanju Silale is one of them. The boy has bone for arms and legs and has already lost an eye to measles. He lets out a dull, incessant cry from his mother’s lap.


The mother, Tulsa, says she lost her earlier child, a boy, when he was two years old. The father, Kamal, is away working on a farm in a neighbouring district because work is scarce in Jamoda.

“I could not breast feed my boy and he died. These days I cannot breast feed Sanju much because I have very little milk,” Tulsa says.

In the dark recesses of another village hut, one-year-old girl Drupta weighs merely 2.5kg and coughs incessantly in her mother’s arms.

“There’s not enough food at home to feed an infant. Parents go out looking for work, leaving the children at home who end up sharing a roti (Indian flatbread) between them,” says a family member.


Tribal decline


Why is there so much hunger and malnutrition in Madhya Pradesh’s tribal countryside?

It is partly to do with the decline of the tribal way of life in India – the relationship between the animist tribespeople and forests is under threat.

Forests are being denuded and laws prohibit tribespeople from hunting and freely growing their crops in whatever is left.


A political party flag atop a hut in Jamdoba

The tribespeople say political parties do little for them

This, say social activists like Prakash Michael, has meant the dietary habits of tribespeople have changed from indigenous coarse cereals and game meat to the more “mainstream” mix of rice, bread and vegetables, which they mostly end up buying from the markets.


With farm incomes stagnating because of soaring prices for fertiliser and seed -combined with lower prices for crops – there is less money to buy food. Most families here earn less than 1,000 rupees ($22) a month.


To make matters worse, the state-run “ration shops” selling cheap rice and wheat as part of India’s notoriously fickle and porous “public distribution system” have cut supplies from 35kg of rice and wheat per family per month two years ago to 20kg.


That’s not all. The shops – essential to feed the poor – open three days a month these days instead of eight days a month earlier. (Last month, authorities, reacting to the deaths of children, ordered the local shops to open every day).

So if you miss going to the shop on the day it opens, you could end up going without food for a week or more.

“We should give a serious thought to why malnutrition is rife only among the tribal children in the state,” says Prakash Michael.

Drupta with her mother

Baby Drupta weighs merely 2.5kg and coughs incessantly

Jamoda offers a few grim clues. They point to the marginalisation of tribespeople in a state where they comprise nearly 20% of the 60 million population.

Set in a largely parched and stony countryside, it is home to some 450 families of indigenous Korku tribespeople – they comprise 80% of the 130,000 people living in the district’s 147 villages.

The nearest government health clinic is 12km (8 miles) away, the nearest hospital 16km away. Most forests in the neighbourhood have been cut down.

The derelict state child-care centre, run by community workers, points to India’s neglect of its children: the kitchen has no utensils or stove, doors and windows are missing, the roof is creaky and leaking and the unfinished floor is covered with stones and crude tiles.

“We give out packed food to 30-40 children here three times a day. We have no utensils to cook. We have to be careful about children who sit on the floor because there is no flooring and poisonous insects come out,” says the centre’s worker, Sushila Patil.

Many tribal children end up in local hospitals with hunger-related diseases.

“There,” a local tribesperson says, “many doctors refuse to treat us because they find us dirty and smelly.”

So who will the people of Jamoda vote for in the upcoming elections – the lotus (the symbol of the BJP) or the hand (Congress)?

A BJP tribal candidate has been winning elections in the area for the past few years without any competition, and a few saffron party flags fly weakly atop some of the huts.

Village elder Budhia Pati says they will vote for the party their neighbours do. Somebody has even told her that if she votes for Congress she would not be able to sell firewood any longer.

“Anyway, I will vote for somebody. Does it really matter? Voting for a party doesn’t really bring any gain, does it?,” she asks wryly.


Saffron terror
November 17, 2008, 12:18 pm
Filed under: India

Saffron terror





Sadhvi Pragya Thakur’s arrest and the questioning of Hindutva extremists for the Malegaon blasts point to the need for action against majoritarian extremism.





WHEN this column (Frontline, October 6, 2006) raised doubts about the police account of the terrorist bombings, which killed more than 30, in Malegaon in northern Maharashtra, many readers questioned this writer’s motives and the validity of his argument that the attacks were in all probability executed by Hindutva fanatics.

Two years on, the Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) has arrested Sadhvi Pragya Thakur. In Madhya Pradesh, Mahashtra and Gujarat, a number of other Hindutva extremists have been detained for interrogation. They have reportedly found solid evidence of the existence of an elaborate, well-ramified terrorist network, which they suspect was involved in several recent bombings in different States, including the blasts in Malegaon and in Modasa in Gujarat in September.

A relook at terror


If the police succeed in substantiating their allegations, the government will have to radically revise its view of terrorism, which it sees primarily, if not solely, as the work of extremist organisations such as the Indian Mujahideen, the Students Islamic Movement of India, the Lashkar-e-Taiba and the Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami, many of them linked to Pakistan/Bangladesh.

The government will also have to go after or ban Hindutva groups such as the Bajrang Dal, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), the Sri Ram Sena and, above all, the Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS), which mentors them and to which they are affiliated. At the centre of the recently discovered Hindutva extremist network are, allegedly, Sadhvi Pragya Thakur, her accomplices Shyam Banwarilal Sahu and Shivnarayan Singh Kalsangar and others such as Sameer Kulkarni and Ramesh Upadhyay, a former Army officer.

Even more important are the organisations to which they belong, including the Hindu Janajagaran Manch and the Sanatana Ashram in Panvel and the Bhonsala Military School in Nashik run by the Central Hindu Military Education Society, established in 1935 by B.S. Moonje – a Hindutva zealot and former Hindu Mahasabha president – who was close to RSS founder K.B. Hedgewar but well to his right.

The terrorist involvement of some of these organisations was detected in 2006 when the ATS of the Maharashtra Police investigated an accidental bomb explosion on April 6 in the house of RSS member L.G. Rajkondwar in Nanded, not far from Malegaon. Bajrang Dal activists Naresh Rajkondwar and Himanshu Panse were killed while attempting to fabricate a bomb along with fellow-extremists.

The ATS filed a charge sheet in August 2006 in which it established the existence of a Bajrang Dal-centred terrorist network. This network was responsible for terrorist bombings in November 2003 at a mosque in Parbhani in Maharashtra’s Marathwada region and in August 2004 at mosques in Jalna and Purna in the same region. The bomb that went off accidentally at Nanded was apparently meant to be used at a mosque in Aurangabad.

The Marathwada-based extremists were trained in bomb-making near Pune, in Goa and at the Bhonsala Military School, where an RSS camp coached more than 100 participants in the use of firearms and in martial arts.

According to the ATS, this operation was part of a large conspiracy to target Muslims and create an impression that Muslim extremists would kill other Muslims to provoke disaffection, widen the communal divide and stoke extremism. This would play straight into the hands of the Hindutva forces, which would attribute all acts of terrorism, including diabolical ones directed at Muslims, solely to Muslims.

The September 2006 bombings in Malegaon outside a crowded mosque after the Friday prayers fit this pattern to a T. Ironically, the police held Muslims responsible, ignoring all material evidence and important clues: the victims were exclusively Muslims observing Shab-e-Barat, or remembrance of the dead, in an adjoining graveyard; the bicycles in which the bombs were planted had Hindu names painted on them.

The police overplayed the “telltale” use of RDX explosive although only one of the three forensic laboratories detected its presence. The Union Home Secretary, no less, had ruled RDX out. But RDX is no Muslim monopoly. It can be procured by any determined group.

Shortly after the explosion at Nanded on April 6, the Secular Citizens’ Forum and the People’s Union for Civil Liberties in Nagpur and the Movement for Peace and Justice in Nanded collected photographs that, according to them, showed a bomb-fabrication operation run by the Bajrang Dal. The pictures proved that the local police tried to cover up Bajrang Dal-VHP involvement by planting firecrackers to suggest that the blast was not caused by bombs. They also ignored the planting of false beards to suggest that the perpetrators were Muslims. They played down the fact that a second bomb was recovered from the same place.

Diluted charges


The activists specifically warned of an imminent attack by Hindutva militants but were ignored. Soon thereafter, Malegaon happened. The Nanded case was transferred to the Central Bureau of Investigation.

According to anti-communalism activist Teesta Setalvad, who moved a Right to Information application to get hold of the CBI’s charge sheet, the CBI considerably diluted the terrorism-related charges and presented the Nanded explosion as an isolated incident unconnected with the Sangh Parivar and delinked from a larger conspiracy. It then pleaded its “inability” to proceed with the investigation.

Since then, Sangh Parivar activists have been implicated in other explosions that took place while bombs were being fabricated in places as varied as Kanpur and Tenkasi, besides Nanded again. There have been any number of instances of Bajrang Dal activists distributing trishuls – four million in Rajasthan alone, according to former Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot – forming anti-Muslim suicide squads, and training members in the use of firearms. They have brazenly owned up to the recent ethnic cleansing operation against Christians in Orissa and to intimidating other minorities.

The Indian state’s response to these manifestly illegal and obnoxiously communal activities has been soft, if not supine. This has encouraged the most vicious and aggressive Hindutva forces to step up their offensive, thus further alienating our already threatened and beleaguered minorities.

Patriotic extremists?


The government’s reluctance to bring Sangh Parivar fanatics to book is premised on the belief that Hindu extremists are somehow more “patriotic” and, therefore, less evil than Islamist extremists. This is a Hindu-majoritarian, anti-secular view. It presumes that Hindus, by virtue of being the majority, are quintessentially more committed to the Indian nation than Muslims or Christians, and hence deserving of sympathy.

This repugnant presumption profoundly misrepresents and seriously violates India’s civic nationalism, which is based on the modern concept of equality of all citizens irrespective of their religion or ethnicity. It is incompatible with our Constitution’s foundational values. In reality, the Sangh Parivar is not committed to the Indian nation but to the “Hindu nation”, in which the minorities must accept a subordinate, second-class status.

Powerful refutation of this presumption was offered by the barbaric burning alive of Graham Staines and his two children in Orissa by Bajrang Dal activist Dara Singh; the Gujarat pogrom; and other gory episodes of violence against Indian citizens and offences against India’s plural, multi-ethnic, multi-religious foundations.

BJP’s responsibility


Militant majoritarianism has held sway in India over the past 20 years and created great fear and insecurity among Muslims. Hindutva’s rise has deeply affected official thinking and given India’s counter-terrorism strategy an Islamophobic edge. A significant number of police and intelligence officials, both serving and retired, have embraced hard or soft Hindutva. Muslim alienation from the government has never been greater. This is especially so where Muslims have been harassed or treated with suspicion, as after the Batla House episode.

The lion’s share of the responsibility for this unacceptably deplorable state of affairs rests with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), many of whose members seamlessly walk in and out of the front organisations of the RSS, and whom the RSS uses at will. Sadhvi Pragya Thakur, for instance, was a leader of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP) for nearly a decade and campaigned for the BJP during the last Assembly elections in Gujarat. Her associates have a similar relationship with Sangh Parivar organisations.

It simply will not do for the BJP to pretend that it is unconnected to these organisations and individuals or, more egregiously, that there can be no “Hindu terrorist” because Hinduism is inherently tolerant and incapable of a fundamentalist interpretation. Indeed, Hindutva embodies intolerance in its most malignant form.

The Indian state will further damage its already frayed secular credentials unless it stops being pusillanimous and musters the courage to take on the Sangh Parivar while protecting the minorities. It must ban the RSS, the Bajrang Dal, the VHP and other extremist groups; prosecute BJP and ABVP members who have links with them; and cleanse its police, security and intelligence apparatuses of communally inclined personnel. No less important, it must set up a high-level commission on the Gujarat pogrom and other recent communal atrocities to punish the guilty.

The ruling coalition has failed to reaffirm a secular agenda in a credible way. Unless it acts with determination and despatch, Hindutva hatred and prejudices will undermine interreligious harmony and tear this society asunder.







Isha Khan

Nehru- the chief architect of Kashmir Slavery
November 14, 2008, 6:17 am
Filed under: India, Muslims, SubContinent
Nehru- the chief architect of Kashmir Slavery

By Dr Abdul Ruff Colachal

14th Nov is the birth day of Indian first premier Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, celebrated in the so-called “secular democracy” India as Children’s’ Day, as if he was a great lover of universal children when he made foundations to get the innocent Kashmiri parents murdered regualry by his terror forces. How much love Indians have for Muslim children in India and Kashmir merits a brief inquiry. Some hollow emotional Hindu friends write to me about “freedom of expression” and “equability” being granted in this “great” nation but they refuse to look at the plight of Kashmir Muslim children who are being harassed by Indian terror forces occupying their nation by brutal force and killing their kith and kin. When hegemonic India showcases its weapon prowess in Kashmir it is the children who are worst affected by this because they fear such terror shows would eventually kill their parents and themselves.

Harassment of Kashmiri children, including female, in all possible ways by the so-called security forces is a routine picture in Kashmir every where and almost all the time. Indian Hindus want to showcase the superioty of hegemonic mother India. Whether it is an “elected” government or Governor’s rule in Jammu Kashmi the situation does not vary any significantly in the region. But with an elected government in Srinagar and Jammu, Indian government is free to use terror to silence even the children in JK because they think these are the future freedom fighters and they should be contained very early so that they learn how to live under a foreign yoke. Since Indian forces hate Kashmiri Muslims, therefore, even children are not spared by them.

Kashmir children should be told about what kind of India Pundit Nehru had created and why they are the real suffers today at the blood stained hands of terrorist India. Currently there two issues in JK, one the farcical Indian poll and another, the possible role of Obama Barack, the President elect, in JK freedom struggle. Kashmiris look forward to Obama’s constructive role in securing freedom for Kashmiris, but the Indian strategists are growing sleepless these days on that account. The Indians want USA to support Indian terror case in Kashmir. Many American leaders (Presidents, Presidents-elect and defeated Presidential-aspirants) thought they could help in finding a solution to the Kashmir issue and failed to do so because of arrogance displayed by India for which there were supports around the terrorist world. Indians argue if the USA interfered, other than saying the usual phrase “let India and Pakistan resolve the issue amicably: which would only mean supporting Indian terrorism in Kashmir, it would burn their fingers and damage Indo-US relations. That is an indirect Indian threat to USA. However, India closely purses its Indian terror case with the supports of Obama in the USA, saying that India is also a secular democracy like the USA and anti-Islamic and hence USA should stand by India .

Many hard-line Indians are amazed that the President-elect oblivious of the past misadventures of the US in the sub-continent should be thinking of one more. Well-informed sources in India don’t want USA to support the Kashmiris case in any manner and say that if the President-elect wants to severely damage the developing Indo-US relations he could not have thought of a better idea than to “meddle” in Kashmir . There is amazement – and confusion – in India over reports that one of the first acts of the President will be to appoint former President Bill Clinton as his Special Envoy on the Kashmir issue to facilitate a settlement between India and Pakistan .
Indian strategists in USA are thronging around the White House to make USA pro-India nation especially when Indo-US nuclearism has been clinched on heavy payment basis. Indian terrorism specialists argue that Democrats would not support Indian state terrorism in Jammu Kashmir even though it would not reign in the atrocities of Indian on innocent Kashmiris.

Americans, across the political divide, just play usual international politics to advance its national interests and want to use the greedy Indians for that. USA indeed had earlier suggested to Sheikh Abdullah, the then Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir that he should seek independence and promised that the US would support him. When the Indian Intelligence Bureau informed Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister, of Stevenson’s secret discussions with Abdullah, he sacked Abdullah. Adlai Stevenson became persona non grata with the Indian political class and public. When Clinton became the President in 1993 he could not resist the temptation to have a go at settling the Kashmir issue. Indian specialists view that US interest in Kashmir has damaged Indo-US relations. USA keeps saying let India and Pakistan resolve the issue on their own, meaning nothing for freedom Kashmiris in content.

US President elect Obama chose Pakistani president Zardari as one of the eight world leaders to speak to once he was declared elected, but Indians are pressing their pro-India mafia in the USA to request Obama to reply to Indian phone calls. Now clearly India and its militant like hardliner specialists feel the Obama and his Democratic Party are bad for India and Osama Bin would again play a role to help USA to secure Kashmir to the real owners, the freedom fighters. Indian intelligence and its media men say that in the history of Indo-American relations since India became independent in 1947, there have been more instances of meddling by Democrats than by Republicans. Many “diplomacy” stalwarts suggest to Indian foreign office to catch the policy makers in Washington to fix the Kashmir issue in favor of terror India.

Discovery of graveyards in Kashmir should make Kashmir children sure of Indian hidden agenda in Kashmir and what bleak future awaits them in future if terror India continues to occupy their lands. Indian leaders, their media as well as Kashmir media just close their eyes on the fate of Kashmir children while loudly pronouncing Nehru’s list of great achievements. Muslim children in India are being molded by their unconsciously pro-Hindutva Muslim parents and the Hindu political organizations surrounding them to respect Hindu culture in preference to their own, if they want to exist peacefully in Indian secular democracy. Kashmiris children should have that ate to and only freedom can salvage this crude situation. And Kashmiri children would benefit by preventing tricky Indian polls and certainly not by going with their parents and relatives to polling booths to vote by standing in long queues braving scotching heat and piercing cold. Let pro-India elements conduct their own party polls in a truly democratic way first without following the retched feudal rules to get their “own people” elected to the posts.

World history has many instances of colonial and imperial powers surrendering sovereignty back to the suppressed and oppressed nations, India got freedom from UK, and one can expect India to do the same in due course once they are damn sure of insistent resistance to Indian occupation by Kashmiris. But the Indian leaders still imagine Indian military is not occupying Kashmir. A glimpse of killings, destructions and poll arrangement by using Indian cash (stolen?) and muscle will reassure the Kashmir children of what kind of India Pundit Nehru had carved out for Muslims in India and Kashmir right in 1947. Kashmiris from a free nation have been turned into a flock of slaves by Nehruvian India by sung brutal force and some pro-India elements in Kashmir. Same Nehru India has also has done enough damage to Indian Muslims in all respects, including spiritually, by dismantling the Grand Babri Mosque on the UK assumptions on the basis of the narrative Ramayana that there was temple once upon a time. Indian Muslim leaders are either co-opted or silenced by Hindu India. So, the ordinary Muslims in this democracy are afraid of even talking about anything against Indian terrorism, destruction of Babri Mosque, attack on Muslims, etc.. Funny secular India indeed!

Fruits yielded cannot vary entirely from the seeds one sows first, and Indian state terrorism in Kashmir is the loudest example as well as illustration of that painful fact. But will Kashmir children be free from Indian state terror atrocities?

Independent Researcher in International Affairs,
South Asia
E Mail

Isha Khan

Two Neighbouring Muslim Presidents
November 9, 2008, 8:52 pm
Filed under: Uncategorized
Iranian President Ahmedinejad vs. former Pakistani President Parveez Musharaf

Anatomy Of Sangh Parivar
November 8, 2008, 7:07 am
Filed under: India, SubContinent

Anatomy Of Sangh Parivar

By Ram Puniyani

The arrest of Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur in the context of Malegaon blasts of September 29, 2008 has been an important step in the investigation of bomb blasts which have been blowing the social peace and communal amity. Along with her the arrest of army officers, retired and serving, has unfolded the whole new dimension about investigation of acts of terror. The involvement of Bhonsala Military School has also come under the scanner of investigating agencies.

The Sadhvi has been the member of Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad and Durga Vahini, which are the parts of Sangh parivar, before she adorned the saffron robe. Sangh parivar is the word coined by the RSS and its progeny for the whole combine, all of them put together. RSS acts as the central controller and its trained volunteers, swayamsevaks, set up and manage different organizations to pursue the goals of RSS.

Sadhvi?s connections with BJP/RSS top leadership came to the surface and the BJP leadership in particular, distanced itself from her, initially. The ideological and political association was attempted to be played down to a mere acquaintance. Disowning the member of its outfits, after they do the crime is nothing new for Sangh organizations. The first such disowning was done when RSS prachark Nathuram Godse murdered the father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi. Since RSS was not keeping records of its members etc. Nathuram claimed in the court that he had nothing to do with RSS, despite the fact that he was a trained RSS volunteer (swayamsevak). In an interview given to ?The Times of India? (25 Jan 98), his brother Gopal Godse, who was also an accomplice in the murder, elaborated the apparent reasons for hiding their affiliation with RSS. ?Technically and theoretically he (Nathuram) was a member (of RSS), but he stopped workings for it later. His statement in the court that he had left the RSS was to protect the RSS workers who would be imprisoned following the murder, on the understanding that they (RSS workers) would benefit from his dissociating himself??

The second major disassociation has been that from Rajendra Pal, alias, Dara Singh who murdered Pastor Graham Steward Stains. His case in the courts was fought by BJP ex Minister Dilip Singh Judeo’s brother. Dara Singh himself was an active worker of VHP, Bajrang Dal and other Sangh organizations. All this was denied shamelessly by RSS combine. And now come the one related to the Sadhvi.

After initial quiet on the issue, now the Hindutva parties (BJP, Shiv Sena) are raising the army of lawyers to fight the case for her. Now their plea is that every accused has a right to be defended. So far they have kept quiet when the lawyers of the accused in the acts of terror have been beaten up and many lawyers associations have resolved not to fight the cases of accused in cases of acts of terror.

It was also stated by BJP spokesperson that there is no evidence, proof of involvement of the Sadhvi. The technicalities of this proof in this case apart one will like to know how many times, in how many cases of arrest of ?alleged Muslim terrorists? this question is raised. Their being a Muslim is a good enough proof of being a terrorist in this scheme of things propagated by RSS combine, and even the encounters, fake most of them, are welcomed by a section of these.

Then came the argument that since Sadhvi is a follower of ?cultural nationalism?, she can?t be a terrorist! Here the partisan attitude of those involved in this politics is clear. What they are referring to by cultural nationalism is Hindu nationalism. As such cultural nationalism has been promoted by the practitioners of politics in the name of religion. Be it Muslim terrorists taught in the US promoted Madrassas in Pakistan in yesteryears or the fundamentalists, doing politics in the name of any religion. In case of Hindutva, this cultural nationalism is the opposite of democratic nationalism, where diversity and equality of all is the foundation of the political ethos.

In case of RSS, cultural nationalism, is based on the some religious texts and the culture of elite Hindus, which gives priority to the Brahminical values, the values of caste and gender based inequality. Democratic nationalism has its focus on respecting and approving all cultures and religions, while in RSS scheme of cultural nationalism the Brahminical culture is the base of political nationalism. So what label does one put to the acts of Godse and Dara Singh? Both of them were steeped in the Cultural nationalism propagated by RSS combine. The formula that terrorism done by Muslims is anti national and the acts done by the ilk of Sadhvi are nationalism defies all the logic. Any act of violation of the Indian law is anti national, there can?t be separate set of laws for those indulging in violence and heinous crimes in the name of religion.

After initial hesitation, it started being said that she was pained by the terrorism committed by Muslims, so this revenge terrorism was meant to protect the Hindu society, and so subtle justification and approval for this variety of crime as being the answer to the terrorism done by Muslims. Some commentators are openly glorifying this and some others are quietly going by this logic. One can say that the Bajrang Dal and Sadhvi?s ilk is not into terrorism because of so called Islamic terrorism, it is in this more due to the indoctrination which they have received through RSS indoctrination module. This indoctrination reduces all the political-social issues to the religious ones.

RSS indoctrination is carried out through its Shakha Baudhiks (Branch intellectual sessions) and camps. It says that this is nation belongs to Hindus alone. Here, the Muslims and Christians are foreigners, the secular people are trying to say that this country belongs to all the people, which is wrong. We need to ensure that these threats to Hindu nation are dealt with properly.

RSS type indoctrination has also created the myth that all terrorists are Muslim, deliberately overlooking that terrorists come from all the religious communities, but not due to religious reasons. The reasons behind terrorism are social, economic and political. Be it LTTE, Khalistanis, ULFA, Irish Republican army all have indulged in terrorism, the reasons being anything but religious. In RSS scheme of things all the acts of terror have been projected to be due to Islam and Muslims. So the two modules merge and create the mind set of Sadhvi or Bajrang Dal members who have died while making bombs in Nanded and Kanpur or members of Hindu Jagran Samiti who planted bombs in Thane near Mumbai.

The current involvement of army officers, Bhonsla Military School and the members of different wings of Sangh privar should not be a surprise if one sees the structure and functioning of RSS. RSS founded to oppose democracy and to work for Hindu nation has been working, indoctrinating and creating more and more organizations to fulfill it objective of Hindu nation, which in essence means to restore the feudal hierarchical values of caste and gender in Indian context, to work for status quo around the modern version of Brahminical system. Its trained swayamsevaks, have been on one hand directly entering the political formations, Bhatiay Janata Party, Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarhti Parishad, Vanvasi Kalyan Ashrma, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Hindu Munnani, Bajrang Dal, Samajik Samrasta Manch on one hand, creating subordinate organizations amongst women, Rashtra Seviak Samiti, Durga Vahini etc on the other hand. Vast layers of Saints, the likes Asaram Bapu or Sri Sri Ravishakar, or Narnedra Maharaj are ideologically on same wave length as RSS and through their work they lay the ground for the politics of RSS to flourish in different sections of society.

Its second strategy has been that of infiltration in the different wings of state machinery, police, bureaucracy, Judiciary. On yet another layer its recruits have been working in the field of education and media by the mechanism of infiltration. Its hold and vicious grip on society cannot just be assessed by the electoral strength of BJP. That?s why Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister, in Staten Island could assert that first he is the swayam sevak of RSS and then the prime minister. That?s why in 1977, when the Bharatiya Jansangh, previous avatar of BJP, who were part of Janata Party, were told to severe their links with RSS, they preferred to break the Janata party rather then severing their affiliation with RSS.

Its strength comes from the earlier silent, by now violent, infiltration in all spheres of social and political activities. Its wing amongst retired military officers ensures that people like Retired army Officer Upadhyay is probably the part of the Malegaon and other such blasts.

Bhonsala military school has been managed by RSS in more ways than one, so not only it may be a place for hatching the conspiracies for blasts, but also for turning out recruits who can aid and assist this Sangh combine while serving in the army. Surprise is not that Bhonsla military school?s connection with this politics is coming to surface, surprise is not that Upadhyay and Purohits? links are coming to surface so late; surprise is that how they hid it so long and so well?

Various components of RSS family sometimes have some differences also, but these are sorted out by the patriarch RSS, through subtle control and ideological mechanisms so that their cohesion with the goal to destroy democracy, through all the means, including using democratic platforms for the same, remains intact. Sadhvi is involved in the blasts or not, army officers or involved in these acts or not should hopefully come out despite their ideological plants scattered all over. What it has brought to our notice is the dangers of this multi headed hydra, which is working in the democratic system with a goal to abolish democracy itself and bring in Hindu nation, another name of fascist formation, abusing the Hindu religion, the religion of Kabir and Gandhi!

In RSS scheme of things the organizational affiliation comes second, the primary thing which they instill is the ideological subordination. Most of those involved in these acts will not have any remorse for what they did, as like the Al Qaeda variety, they are indoctrinated to believe that it is nationalism (Hindu in this case, in Al Qaeda variety it is Islamic nation of course) so what you are doing while instigating anti minority violence or while planting the bombs is for the service of your religion!


While superficially at loggerheads the ideological wavelength of RSS indoctrination is similar to the one used in Pakistani Madrassas for training Al Qaeda. Here the religion is different paradigms are same. To deal with such ideologies leading to acts of terror, what is also needed is to combat their ideological foundations.

Roots of Indian Terrorism
November 3, 2008, 11:06 am
Filed under: India, Muslims
Roots of Indian Terrorism

By Dr. Abdul Ruff Colachal

Hindus breed terror seeds in order to terrorize and kill Muslims. Equipped with colossal weapons, India never seeks peaceful solutions. It wants to use force to coerce those who disagree with its colonial and imperialist drives. India has thus created a corpus of militant Hindus who are arrogant and seek terrorist means to settle issues. Kashmiris seek peaceful resolution of sovereignty issue, but India continues to add terror forces to occupied Jammu Kashmir and kill the defenseless Kashmiri Muslims. Yet, India claims to a secular democracy and seeks a UNSC seat to pursue its hidden agendas.

Like the USA, the world terrorist nation, India also off and on makes loud noises about the now famous “terrorism”, though of late it come refrained, for no reason, using the phrase “cross border terrorism. The intelligence wing with the help of essentially anti-Muslim Indian media is never tired of “tracking” the Muslims as “terrorism” causers. The paid media agents do churn out “interesting” stories about Muslim terrorists and how they were tracked and argue, quite convincingly, how important it is to finish off the Muslims in stock and barrel.

One of the major Hindu festival Divali (or Deepavali in the south India) has been, as usual celebrated, rather blasted, in all parts of India from Kanyakumari to Punjab and Haryana (Jammu Kashmir is an alien nation though presently under Indian military occupation and brutal control) in the usual fun and fair with a lot more noise pollution and atmosphere pollution, but also glorification of terrorism actions in a legally fitting matter.

Many a Hindu festival in India is marked by terrorism shows like loud crackers and semi explosives. Fascist tendencies are explicit on these occasions. Hindus expect Muslims to cooperate with Hindus in expressing solidarity with Hindu festivities by aggressively exploding semi-explosives. If it only Hindus blast explosives, it is one matter, but Muslims living among the Hindus also, for fear of onslaught form the Hindus if they also do not do same, for expressing their own terrorist instincts at part with fellow Hindus, waste quite a lot of money on “fire-works’ creating nuisance, pollutions, both noise and atmospheric, as well inconvenience to the moving public in streets and roads.

Inspired by terror based festivities, the Hindus make more powerful explosives to terrorize the nation.

It is strange that whenever India or Blue wing of Indian team inside India wins a match similar terrorism blasts do happen almost every where in India and this is done in a systematical manner and no an isolated phenomenon. This aggressive expression of joy at victory in a match takes very ugly form in many parts of India when Hindus blast bombs.
1. Indian Fascism

Ghastly destruction of Grand Babri Mosque remains the glaring specimen for the Indian and Hindu fascist culture, rather vulture culture. Hinduism, thus, has become a symbol of intolerance, terrorism, apart from being a major source of colonialism and imperialism.

In fact these explosives situation in India only showcases fascist trends in Hindu thinking. The attitude is very simple: “it is our country (read Hindus’) and we will do whatever we please and if you don’t want to tolerate us (read Indian democracy and secularism) then go to Pakistan”. This has been the standard response from the Hindus to any Muslims who even silently resent such anti-social terrorist activities in the society in the name of festivities. Muslims have no ways to defend their freedom in India, imposing fascist attitudes on Muslims.

USA and India must foster tolerance through deliberate policies and efforts, because all societies are now essentially multi-ethnic. Indian text books must teach the children respect of each other, to respect Muslims as part of the society as equal citizens. But children are taught ills about other races and cultures. Muslims are not unwanted elements as the Indian media project them.

2. Islam, a peaceful Religion

Islam is a religion of peace and tolerance. But the world wants to make and see it a religion of “terrorism” and “fundamentalism” just like that. India wants to siphon off the resources form Muslims and take every fruit of development exclusively for Hindus. Hence they harass Muslims. Islamophofia is being successfully created around the world to generate hatred against Muslims and threaten their very existence. In countries where Muslims are in minority, such as India, USA and UK, Muslims are being ill-treated the worst possible ways and they are branded as “terrorists”, real or potential.

Evil of intolerance has been indeed on the increase in the so-called democracies. Intolerance to Islamic faith in a covert manner is being religious practiced not just in USA, UK and the rest of the West, but even in countries like Hindu India that make tall claims about their tolerance and what they practice in fact amount to contempt for tolerance. Muslims at global level still refused to combat this nasty phenomenon. The phenomenon has thus resulted crudely in the anti-Islamism projections the world over, causing death, genocide, violence, religious persecution as well as confrontations on different levels. While talking about tolerance, the global state machinery has been targeting on Muslims as its perceived enemy. Majority Indians, the Hindus, show disrespect to Muslims and expect total obedience to Hindus and their institutions, including culture. They expect Muslims to renounce Islamic rituals eventually and imbibe Hindu customs and practices in stead in due course.

3. Congress-BJP communal-terrorist Nexus

Under the sinister garb of “secular democracy” India has promoted Hindu terrorists in a hidden manner and these terrorists plant bombs in select places across the nation and Indian media-cum-intelligence-cum-police cleverly place the blame on Muslims, while “patriotic’ terror organizations, while RSS and Bajrang Dal continue to terrorize India. Indian governments, both central and state, intentionally hide the information about Hindu terrorist activities, though Indian intelligence agencies do supply the information to the government circles for “necessary actions”.

The recent revelations in the Malegaon blasts put every ongoing blast investigation under a cloud and a question mark. Clearly, the police suppressed all the trails that led to Sangh outfits and BJP leaders – allowing these terrorists to roam free and contest and campaign in elections – while misleading the nation by framing innocents of a minority community. Is it not all too possible that this is happening in every single blast investigation?

Indian politics is communal. Congress has a very long communal history that goes back to 19th century when Indians were fighting for freedom form UK. It is not just BJP leaders, however, who are linked with the terrorist sadhvi. Pragya is a disciple of Swami Avadheshanand Giri: and her fellow disciples include Union HRD Minister and celebrated ‘secular’ figure Argon Singh and his son Ajay. The list of VVIPs, cutting across the political, executive and judiciary wings, could be too long, indeed! Ajay, head of the Congress campaign panel for the upcoming state polls in MP, rushed to deny Avadheshanand’s links with Pragya. VHP is trying to make the world Hinduized.

Intelligence and policy pretend ignorance of the secret Hindu organizations engaged in terrorist activities in the country. The Governments at State and Centre did not know all along about the activities of hidden Hindu terrorist originations, especially the Bhonsala Military Academy, which has been openly holding arms training camps for Bajrang Dal terrorists/goons from all over the country. Blasts aside, how come such training camps for communal outfits were not deemed illegal and banned even as Bajrang Dal brigades repeatedly conducted anti-Muslim and anti-Christian violence?” The Congress and UPA Government is hoping to let the state machinery ‘leak’ out a tiny part of the truth about the involvement of Sangh outfits in terror, in order to get the upper hand in the elections. But we won’t be satisfied with such scraps.

Known for it hidden agendas and terrorist activities in Jammu Kashmir, India does not ban Hindu extremist organizations even after Babri Mosque was pulled down by Hindu terrorists. Congress plays hidden tricks with BJP, while several Hindu organizations are connected Congress party just as they are close to BJP. Military, police and media are under the control of both of these parties. The nexus among all these Indian anti-Muslim components create terrorism and harm the national harmony and problems for innocent Muslims. Is it not a dangerous trend?

An Observation

Hindus derive a lot sadistic pleasures out of sufferings of Muslims both by promoting terrorism themselves and branding the Muslims as terrorists, while the hon. judiciary maintains silence as if the judges are deaf and dumps. Indian governments must ban the Hindu terrorist organizations, “social explosions” by Hindus disturbing social peace in the country, apart from causing serious climatic problems.

The terrorist instincts are inherent in Hindu mind. And this is indeed a very serious matter, because Hindus as the majority section of this predominately and predominately Hindu nation influence the Muslims in the country who for the sake of mere existence under the control of Hindus and their governments also and provoke them to engage themselves in terrorism activities. Political outfits run by Hindus incite violence by sung Muslims as henchmen.

Hindus terrorize Muslims and Muslims are also punished because the media and intelligence brand them as “terrorists”. India evades and violates human rights; but it tolerates the practice of tolerance against subjugation of Muslims by the state. It inversely advocates toleration of social injustice, the abandonment and weakening of one’s convictions. But tolerance means that one is free to adhere to one’s own convictions and accepts that others adhere to theirs. India is just opposed to this universal approach.

India must now admit that Hindus are terrorists and terrorize Indians and the entire region and kill the Muslims in Jammu Kashmir. India should not dream about justifying its terrorist activism by using USA, its newly found strategic partner with which it has been “nuclearily” flirting for quite some time. Time is up for India to go a through introspection and remedial measures for itself, its media and police, military and other variety of security services. Indian security forces are making the life of Muslims more and more insecure.


Dr. Abdul Ruff Colachal
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Isha Khan

India’s nationhood challenged by multiple identities
November 3, 2008, 11:04 am
Filed under: India
India’s nationhood challenged by multiple identities

By Vidya Bhushan Rawat

Assam is burning today. Latest reports suggests that over 75 people have been killed and scores of other injured in the 13 bomb blasts that ripped through several districts of the state yesterday ( October 30th, 2008). The intelligence’s needle of suspicion is on Huji militants and United Liberation Front of Assam ( ULFA). Just a few weeks back, several villages of Muslims were burnt and it looked that Assam might return to the horror stories of February 18, 1983 when in Nellie alone witnessed the worst ever carnage, brutal killings of about 3300 people in just one day.

Assam has been too sensitive to the issue of immigrants and over the past fifty years a huge chunk of Bangla immigrants have infiltrated in the state creating panic of a demographic change in the state. It is not just the Muslim immigrants which the Hindutva organizations often blame, but also the dominance of Bangla speaking people have become a bone of contention in the north east. Last year, the Hindi speaking people from Bihar were targeted in Guwahati and other parts of Assam.

But Assam is not alone in its antipathy towards the immigrants. Maharastra is in the turmoil and the fire is lit by none other than Raj Thackrey and his private limited company ‘ Maharastra Nav Nirman Sena’ or MNS. This time the target is poor taxi drivers, milk sellers, vegetable vendors from Hindi speaking states particularly Bihar and Uttar-Pradesh. The MNS says that these people have over burdened the city of Mumbai and snatched the jobs from the locals. Unfortunately, Raj and his MNS have no complaint against the industries being run by Sindhis, Marwadis, Sikhs, Parsis and Guaratis. It is also interesting that Bombay was actually never really a showcase of Maharastra, as Pune on one side and Nagpur on the other were the true symbol of Maharastra. Every body knows that Maharastra has a big heritage and a pan Indian identity of both the Dalit-Bahujan legacy as well as Hindutva protagonists. In terms of Hindutva, Nagpur became the headquarter of the Sangh and Tilak, Savarkar became the masters of Hindutva in India. But most astonishing part of the Maharastra legacy is the rise of revolt in the form of Ambedkar, Jyoti Ba Phule and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj. Thanks to rising consciousness among the marginalised these legends are now recognizable faces all over the country.

Language nationalism started from Tamilnadu when Periyar and his self respect volunteers rightfully targeted the imposition of Hindi all over the states where Hindi was just a foreign language. Periyar’s fear was that this Hindisation of Tamilnadu will be a death knell for the Dravidian Tamil culture. There might have been other reasons also for the anti Hindi agitation but there were not many immigrants from the Hindi heartland. The real thing was that Madras, the state capital, had a majority of non Tamil people basically Telugu speaking and they had their own grievances against the dominance Tamil identity. The struggle for Telengana was basically assertion of an identity which looked themselves different from Tamil and the result was the formation of an Andhra State for the Telugu speaking people in 1953.

Similarly, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh were carved out of Punjab to protect the ‘Hindi’ speaking people whose language was not Punjabi. The fact of the matter was that most of them had Punjabi as their mother tongue but they opted for a Hindi state on utterly communal lines. Abohar and Fazilka, the two towns of Haryana became bone of contention in the reorganization of state as Punjab claimed them. Like wise, Kerala became a state for the Malayalam speaking people while Karnataka for Kannada.

Indian people have multiple identities. And the most important one these days were caste identity. A veteran like Editor of Dalit Voice, V.T.Rajshekar says that caste is the most important among these identities as every Indian asserts his/her caste identity more than anything else. Caste surpasses even the religious identities. Interestingly, when the states were reorganized, they thought that the language was unifying force. Definitely not. The interest of the Dalits in Maharastra are very much different than the interest of the upper caste Marathas. In fact, it was the Shiv Sena and its goons that went bloody to oppose the name of Marathwada University in the name of Dr Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar University in the mid eighties. Was Baba Saheb not a Maharastrian ? Was he not educated? But then, the Shiv Sena which claims to champion the Marathi Manoos, does not have these identities as main identity. Identity for them is to gain power and serve the interest of their own goons. Otherwise, why has the Hindutva exposed itself at the micro level when it was championing the cause of the ‘Hindus’ of India? It indicates how the ‘nationalism’ cracks in India and simply identify with your ethnic identities. It is used in the regional context if the person claiming its legacy has his option limited to state. So for Raj Thackerey and other in his family pan Hindutva identity remains unbeneficial and therefore they have started this Marathi-non-Marathi debates.

The politics of India has changed very much in the past 20 years. Hence the regional identities have been replaced by the caste identities. There was a time when the language was big meeting point but in the post Mandalised India, it is the caste which is becoming more uniting factor and hence the usage of this identity is not just the domain of the Dalits and OBCs alone but also the Brahmins. Hence, if you go to interior of Tamilnadu today, where the most oppressed Paraya or Arundhatiar may not know anything about the culture of the north, but definitely feel proud in owning Mayawati as his hailing from his community. Similarly, Ambedkar, Bhagat Singh, Gandhi and Subhash have crossed all the boundaries of region and languages. They are not confined to one language and are worshipped by their own followers.

But it is also true that language can be a strong cultural identity as happened during the time of creation of Bangladesh. Pakistan came into being in the name of Muslim identity and Urdu became its ‘national language’ ignoring the vast majority of Bangla speaking people as well as dominating Punjabi Muslims. When Jinnah went to deliver his first lecture as Governor General of Pakistan in the Dhaka University Campus immediately after the creation of Pakistan and declared that ‘Urdu shall be the national language of Pakistan’, the students pelted stones and threw chappals at him. The issue of Bangla nationalism was so strong that Urdu and Pakistan became its first victims. Unfortunately, it is not just the language identity which made some people superior and other inferior. Reading through the texts of some of Pakistani generals felt that the people of East Bengal were inferior to those of West Pakistan. Clear enough, the caste identities of superior race dominated the consciousness of Pakistan and Urdu a language of the pure remained isolated in the Punjabi dominated Pakistan.

But in the modern politics of identities in India, it is actually either religious or caste identity that is becoming dominating. The Hindi speaking Uttar-Pradesh is being demanded to be partitioned to at least five states of Harit Pradesh, Poorvanchal, Bundelkhand, Avadh and Ruhailkhand. Uttarakhand, Chhatishgarh and Jharkhand were carved out of their mother states because of ‘distinct’ cultural identity. While Chhatishgarh and Jharkhand had a long history of the Adivasi movement for separate state, Uttarakhand state had anti reservation movement as the focal point of their separation from Uttar-Pradesh which was under the domination of Dalit Bahujan identities.

Identities are carefully crafted and hence at the one end when Uttar-Pradesh’s political forces combined Dalit-Bahujan to dislodge to the brahmanical hegemony, polity has taken a completely U turn against the same ideological perception and Bahujan has been recreated as Sarvjan. In the Uttarakhand state, issue of plain verses hill became dominant ignoring the basic difference between Kumauon verses Garhwal. In both the assembly elections Uttarakhand’s Brahmins carefully drafted these identities to benefit them. Hence when Congress was in power it made N.D.Tiwari, the chief minister of the state just ignoring the claim of Harish Rawat, who was the president of the party and led it to the victory and when the BJP came to the power, it made B.C.Khanduri, another Brahmin, but this time from Garhwal, in the name of Garhwali sentiments, as chief minister again ignoring the claim of the Bhagat Singh Koshiyari, who has the majority support of M.L.As.

The BJP created the three states out of its own compulsions. It knew well that it was difficult for it to regain power either in Bihar and Uttar-Pradesh, as both the states have been the biggest hurdles in Sangh Parivar’s agenda for spreading the communal venom. Also, both the states have been successfully able to contain the communal virus because of the massive Dalit Bahujan alliance. Ofcourse, this alliance itself has lot of contradictions which are being used and co-opted by the Sangh Parivar yet both UP and Bihar have shown that caste consciousness in broader sense has been able to contain the hegemony of the brahmanical structure, though the ideology is difficult to get defeated because of the cooption of the political class and our antipathy for the values of human dignity and individual’s supremacy. So, in the name of identity, we have seen the rise of the brahmanical forces in these smaller states. All the three newly carved states of Chhatishgarh, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand are new experimenting ground of Hindutva with tribal, Dalits and OBCs trapped in their various contradictions being used by the brahmanical elites.

While language became the main focus of formation of state but as the new forces of interest are coming in, one hegemony is being challenged by the other one and those who do not have the numbers are the most isolated ones. The problem in the Indian subcontinent is our deep disregard for the minority rights. Experience has shown that the politics of identity is often detrimental for the individuals and minorities unless they have the power to challenge. It has often shown contempt for dissent and often poor people become victim of its ‘ultra-nationalist’ approach. Hence, the slogan of Jai Maharastra is nothing but a signals to those who are not born Marathi that they can not claim the legacy of the state as Marathi nationalism is quintessentially an upper caste Marathi dominance.

At the time when the Dalit-Bahujan consciousness at political level in Maharastra was threatening the status quo, this issue has divided people on language line. Congress used the growing discontents in the state against the MNS for its own purpose and result would be a compulsion for the north Indians to join forces with Congress to ‘save’ multiculturalism. Already, Muslims are at the receiving end from the Shiv Sena and now this situation has further polarized the society.

Therefore, India needs a state reorganization commission. It need strong secular laws so that narrow chauvinism in the name of identities be dealt with strong hand. Hatred in the name of identity is in fact hidden apartheid where the sole aim of such forces is to maintain the status quo. Demand for separate state like Telengana are quite old but that need to be seen in a different track now. One must not forget that Andhra Pradesh came into being after much struggle in the name of Telugu identity, very similar to Gujarat’s separation from Maharastra. The problem in carving out these states was ignoring the claims of the Muslims and Urdu language. Urdu, a language born in India is slowly dying Muslims seems to paying a price for the partition of India even after so many years. Every one except the Muslims demand for separate states since others got a right for their ‘legitimate’ demands. The political class in India needs serious thinking and secular law must be implemented because for every parochial demand if we start separate state because all of us do not want any dissent and disagreement will lead to further crisis in India. State can not be created to satisfy demands of a few individuals and their caste fellows. Hence, time has come for government to seriously think over the state reorganization commission and seriously ponder over the issues. A secular India can not allow state hood to fulfill Hindutva’s hidden agenda of brahmanical dominance which is severely under strain after the assertions of the marginalized communities. Any demand for separate state based on communal hatred need to be out rightly rejected. Statehood need to be developed on the rightful demands of the marginalized communities and not to maintain status quo for a few power Hungary politicians and their families.

Isha Khan